Abstract

Epilayers of packaged indium gallium nitride light-emitting diodes (LED’s) are characterized by optical-beam-induced current (OBIC) and photoluminescence laser-scanning microscopy through two-photon excitation. Light scattering and absorption in the packaging material and the pdoped top layer of the LED’s are greatly reduced as a result of employing a longer excitation wavelength, with energy that is less than the bandgap of the top p layer. Compared with single-photon OBIC, two-photon OBIC imaging not only exhibits superior image quality but also reveals more clearly the characteristics of the epilayers that are being focused on.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998 (2)

1997 (6)

C. Xu and W. Denk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. B 55, 1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Booker, G. R.

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Day, D.

Denk, W.

C. Xu and W. Denk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fasol, G.

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Footner, P. K.

B. P. Richards and P. K. Footner, The Role of Microscopy in Semiconductor Failure Analysis (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1992).

Fujita, Sg.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. B 55, 1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, Sz.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. B 55, 1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Funato, M.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

D. Day and M. Gu, Appl. Opt. 37, 6299 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Gu, Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

Kawakami, Y.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. B 55, 1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laczik, Z.

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, Science 281, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. B 55, 1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. B 55, 1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. P.

B. P. Richards and P. K. Footner, The Role of Microscopy in Semiconductor Failure Analysis (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1992).

Schilders, S. P.

S. P. Schilders, “Microscopic imaging in turbid media,” Ph.D. dissertation (Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, 1999).

Sheppard, C. J. R.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1984).

Sota, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Török, P.

Varga, P.

Wada, K.

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1984).

Xu, C.

C. Xu and W. Denk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu and W. Denk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2578 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4188 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, M. Funato, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Narukawa, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, Sg. Fujita, and S. Nakamura, Phys. Rev. B 55, 1938R (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, Science 248, 73 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakamura, Science 281, 956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Gu, Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996).

S. P. Schilders, “Microscopic imaging in turbid media,” Ph.D. dissertation (Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, 1999).

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilson and C. J. R. Sheppard, Theory and Practice of Scanning Optical Microscopy (Academic, New York, 1984).

B. P. Richards and P. K. Footner, The Role of Microscopy in Semiconductor Failure Analysis (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1992).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the two-photon OBIC and PL imaging system. The two input channels (CH1, CH2) allow simultaneous acquisition of PC and PL images. ND filter, neutral-density filter; PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Two-photon photoncurrent as a function of incident power. The slope of 1.9 indicates the nonlinear nature of the two-photon process. (b) Depth dependence of the two-photon photocurrent. The focal position corresponds to the actual location of the objective. The asymmetry of this curve indicates the effect of spherical aberration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-photon photocurrent image of an InGaN-based LED. All images are 1024×1024 pixels. The smallest feature that can be resolved is approximately 1.3 µm in size. (b) The corresponding two-photon PL image acquired simultaneously with (a). A combination of a cold mirror and a bandpass filter with central wavelength 450 nm and FWHM bandwidth 50 nm is used to reject background. Since the active layer is very thin 0.15 µm, nonconfocal detection is used. (c) Single-photon photocurrent image of the same LED. The 488-nm line from an argon–krypton laser was employed for excitation. The image blurring cannot be corrected by adjustment of the height of the focal plane, which is an indication of spherical aberration.

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