Abstract

An optical divide-by-3 system has been developed to phase lock a diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser at 148  THz (2022  nm) to a frequency near 1/3 that of an ultrastable diode laser system at 445  THz (674  nm). The 148-THz radiation is frequency doubled in angle-tuned AgGaS2 and frequency differenced with the 445-THz radiation in noncritically phase-matched LiNbO3, generating two signals at 297  THz, which are mixed on a photodiode. An electronic servo system is used to control the frequency of the Tm:YAG laser and to phase lock it to the visible diode laser output. Phase-locking periods of several minutes are routinely obtained.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998

J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 150, 170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Nee and N. C. Wong, Opt. Lett. 23, 46 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

O. Pfister, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, L. Zink, D. A. Van Baak, M. D. Levenson, and W. R. Bosenberg, Opt. Lett. 22, 1211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Stoll, J.-J. Zondy, and O. Acef, Opt. Lett. 22, 1302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, H. A. Klein, and W. R. C. Rowley, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 140, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zheng, L. Zhang, and T. Kobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Pfister, M. Mürtz, J. S. Wells, L. Hollberg, and J. T. Murray, Opt. Lett. 21, 1387 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

1993

B. G. Whitford, Metrologia 30, 145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

1983

Acef, O.

K. Stoll, J.-J. Zondy, and O. Acef, Opt. Lett. 22, 1302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barwood, G. P.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, H. A. Klein, and W. R. C. Rowley, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beaty, E. C.

Bernard, J. E.

J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 150, 170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 140, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Whitford, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 471.

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bosenberg, W. R.

Clairon, A.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Beauvoir, B.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

Evenson, K. M.

Felder, R.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Freegarde, T.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

Gill, P.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, H. A. Klein, and W. R. C. Rowley, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

Helmcke, J.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilico, L.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Jennings, D. A.

Klein, H. A.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, H. A. Klein, and W. R. C. Rowley, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Q. Zheng, L. Zhang, and T. Kobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

Levenson, M. D.

Lipphardt, B.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madej, A. A.

J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 150, 170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 140, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Whitford, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 471.

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

Marmet, L.

J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 150, 170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Whitford, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 471.

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

Murray, J. T.

Mürtz, M.

Nee, P. T.

Nez, F.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, F. R.

Pfister, O.

Pollock, C. R.

Prevedelli, M.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

Riehle, F.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowley, W. R. C.

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, H. A. Klein, and W. R. C. Rowley, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siemsen, K. J.

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Whitford, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 471.

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

Stoll, K.

Touahri, D.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Baak, D. A.

Wells, J. S.

Whitford, B. G.

J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 140, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Whitford, Metrologia 30, 145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Whitford, in Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 187.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Whitford, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 471.

Wong, N. C.

Zhang, L.

Q. Zheng, L. Zhang, and T. Kobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Q.

Q. Zheng, L. Zhang, and T. Kobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zink, L.

Zinner, G.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zondy, J.-J.

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Stoll, J.-J. Zondy, and O. Acef, Opt. Lett. 22, 1302 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, S241 (1995).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

L. Marmet, A. A. Madej, K. J. Siemsen, J. E. Bernard, and B. G. Whitford, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 169 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Barwood, P. Gill, H. A. Klein, and W. R. C. Rowley, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 46, 133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Q. Zheng, L. Zhang, and T. Kobayashi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35, L1271 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

B. G. Whitford, Metrologia 30, 145 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. E. Bernard, L. Marmet, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 150, 170 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, and A. A. Madej, Opt. Commun. 140, 45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Touahri, O. Acef, A. Clairon, J.-J. Zondy, R. Felder, L. Hilico, B. de Beauvoir, F. Biraben, and F. Nez, Opt. Commun. 133, 471 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. Schnatz, B. Lipphardt, J. Helmcke, F. Riehle, and G. Zinner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 18 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. G. Whitford, in Proceedings of the 4th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), p. 187.
[CrossRef]

B. G. Whitford, J. E. Bernard, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Frequency Standards and Metrology (World Scientific, Singapore, 1996), p. 471.

A. A. Madej, J. E. Bernard, B. G. Whitford, L. Marmet, and K. J. Siemsen, in Proceedings of the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, N.J., 1998), p. 323.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup of the divide-by-3 system. MIM, metal–insulator–metal diode; λ/2, half-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simplified schematic of the locking electronics for the divide-by-3 system: BP, bandpass; DFG, difference-frequency generation; SHG, second-harmonic generation; TTL, transistor–transistor logic.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time histories of the 1-s counted frequency of the beat between the two 297-THz signals produced in the second-harmonic and the difference-frequency crystals, with the Tm:YAG laser (a) free running, (b) frequency locked, and (c) phase locked.

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