Abstract

Transient pump–probe measurements of circular anisotropy in nickel films induced by 38-fs optical pulses show an instantaneous response that is related to the optical orientation of the spins of free electrons. Measurements in a sample of variable thickness, performed in both transmission and reflection, revealed that the surface significantly influences the degenerate cubic optical nonlinearity of the nickel films to a depth of approximately 4–5 nm into the bulk.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Y. Wang and M. C. Downer, Opt. Lett. 17, 1450 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Liebsch, Surf. Sci. 307/309, 1007 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. I. Zheludev, P. J. Bennett, H. Loh, S. V. Popov, I. R. Shatwell, Yu. P. Svirko, V. E. Gusev, V. F. Kamalov, and E. V. Slobodchikov, Opt. Lett. 20, 1368 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Dhanjal, S. V. Popov, I. R. Shatwell, Yu. P. Svirko, N. I. Zheludev, and V. E. Gusev, Opt. Lett. 22, 1879 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Rasing, M. G. Koerkamp, B. Koopmans, and H. Vander Berg, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6181 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Benneman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, London, 1985), p. 323.
  16. Yu. P. Svirko and N. I. Zheludev, Polarization of Light in Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1998), Chap. 7.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. Hubner and G. P. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 58, R5920 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. V. F. Gantmaher and I. B. Levinson, Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors (Nauka, Moscow, 1984), Chap. 13.

1998 (2)

G. P. Ju, A. Vertikov, A. V. Nurmikko, C. Canady, G. Xiao, R. F. C. Farrow, and A. Cebollada, Phys. Rev. B 57, R700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Hubner and G. P. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 58, R5920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

A. Scholl, L. Baumgarten, R. Jacquemin, and W. Eberhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 5146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Benneman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Bungay, S. V. Popov, I. R. Shatwell, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Lett. A 234, 379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Dhanjal, S. V. Popov, I. R. Shatwell, Yu. P. Svirko, N. I. Zheludev, and V. E. Gusev, Opt. Lett. 22, 1879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. Rasing, M. G. Koerkamp, B. Koopmans, and H. Vander Berg, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6181 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J. Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebsch, Surf. Sci. 307/309, 1007 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Popov, N. I. Zheludev, and Yu. P. Svirko, Opt. Lett. 19, 13 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. W. Schoenlien, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, and G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

W. K. Burns and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. B 4, 3437 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L. H.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baumgarten, L.

A. Scholl, L. Baumgarten, R. Jacquemin, and W. Eberhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 5146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beaurepaire, E.

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J. Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benneman, K. H.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Benneman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, P. J.

Bigot, J. Y.

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J. Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloembergen, N.

W. K. Burns and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. B 4, 3437 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bungay, A. R.

A. R. Bungay, S. V. Popov, I. R. Shatwell, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Lett. A 234, 379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. B 4, 3437 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Canady, C.

G. P. Ju, A. Vertikov, A. V. Nurmikko, C. Canady, G. Xiao, R. F. C. Farrow, and A. Cebollada, Phys. Rev. B 57, R700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cebollada, A.

G. P. Ju, A. Vertikov, A. V. Nurmikko, C. Canady, G. Xiao, R. F. C. Farrow, and A. Cebollada, Phys. Rev. B 57, R700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Daunois, A.

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J. Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhanjal, S.

Downer, M. C.

Eberhardt, W.

A. Scholl, L. Baumgarten, R. Jacquemin, and W. Eberhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 5146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eesley, G. L.

R. W. Schoenlien, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, and G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Farrow, R. F. C.

G. P. Ju, A. Vertikov, A. V. Nurmikko, C. Canady, G. Xiao, R. F. C. Farrow, and A. Cebollada, Phys. Rev. B 57, R700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Schoenlien, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, and G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gantmaher, V. F.

V. F. Gantmaher and I. B. Levinson, Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors (Nauka, Moscow, 1984), Chap. 13.

Gusev, V. E.

Hohlfeld, J.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Benneman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hubner, W.

W. Hubner and G. P. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 58, R5920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemin, R.

A. Scholl, L. Baumgarten, R. Jacquemin, and W. Eberhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 5146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ju, G. P.

G. P. Ju, A. Vertikov, A. V. Nurmikko, C. Canady, G. Xiao, R. F. C. Farrow, and A. Cebollada, Phys. Rev. B 57, R700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kamalov, V. F.

Knorren, R.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Benneman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koerkamp, M. G.

T. Rasing, M. G. Koerkamp, B. Koopmans, and H. Vander Berg, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6181 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koopmans, B.

T. Rasing, M. G. Koerkamp, B. Koopmans, and H. Vander Berg, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6181 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levinson, I. B.

V. F. Gantmaher and I. B. Levinson, Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors (Nauka, Moscow, 1984), Chap. 13.

Liebsch, A.

A. Liebsch, Surf. Sci. 307/309, 1007 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Z.

R. W. Schoenlien, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, and G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Loh, H.

Matthias, E.

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Benneman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Merle, J. C.

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J. Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nurmikko, A. V.

G. P. Ju, A. Vertikov, A. V. Nurmikko, C. Canady, G. Xiao, R. F. C. Farrow, and A. Cebollada, Phys. Rev. B 57, R700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R. P.

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Popov, S. V.

Rasing, T.

T. Rasing, M. G. Koerkamp, B. Koopmans, and H. Vander Berg, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6181 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlien, R. W.

R. W. Schoenlien, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, and G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, A.

A. Scholl, L. Baumgarten, R. Jacquemin, and W. Eberhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 5146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shatwell, I. R.

Shen, Y. R.

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Slobodchikov, E. V.

Sun, C. K.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Svirko, Yu. P.

Vallee, F.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vander Berg, H.

T. Rasing, M. G. Koerkamp, B. Koopmans, and H. Vander Berg, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6181 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vertikov, A.

G. P. Ju, A. Vertikov, A. V. Nurmikko, C. Canady, G. Xiao, R. F. C. Farrow, and A. Cebollada, Phys. Rev. B 57, R700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. Y.

Wei, H. D.

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, G.

G. P. Ju, A. Vertikov, A. V. Nurmikko, C. Canady, G. Xiao, R. F. C. Farrow, and A. Cebollada, Phys. Rev. B 57, R700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. P.

W. Hubner and G. P. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 58, R5920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Rasing, M. G. Koerkamp, B. Koopmans, and H. Vander Berg, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 6181 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

A. R. Bungay, S. V. Popov, I. R. Shatwell, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Lett. A 234, 379 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (6)

W. Hubner and G. P. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 58, R5920 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Ju, A. Vertikov, A. V. Nurmikko, C. Canady, G. Xiao, R. F. C. Farrow, and A. Cebollada, Phys. Rev. B 57, R700 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Pan, H. D. Wei, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. B 39, 1229 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Phys. Rev. B 50, 15337 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Burns and N. Bloembergen, Phys. Rev. B 4, 3437 (1971).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

R. W. Schoenlien, W. Z. Lin, J. G. Fujimoto, and G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1680 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Scholl, L. Baumgarten, R. Jacquemin, and W. Eberhardt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 5146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, J. C. Merle, A. Daunois, and J. Y. Bigot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4250 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hohlfeld, E. Matthias, R. Knorren, and K. H. Benneman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4861 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (1)

A. Liebsch, Surf. Sci. 307/309, 1007 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, London, 1985), p. 323.

Yu. P. Svirko and N. I. Zheludev, Polarization of Light in Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1998), Chap. 7.

V. F. Gantmaher and I. B. Levinson, Scattering in Metals and Semiconductors (Nauka, Moscow, 1984), Chap. 13.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Pump-induced probe polarization-azimuth rotation at zero pump–probe delay observed in transmission experiments for opposite directions of propagation ( and ) and the corresponding values of the optical nonlinearity ΔχT in nickel, calculated from Eq. (1) ( and ). The inset shows the normalized pump-induced probe polarization azimuth rotation as a function of the pump–probe delay in transmission through the sample. In all cases the response was instantaneous within the time resolution available, with 38-fs optical pulses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pump-induced probe polarization-azimuth rotation at zero pump–probe delay on reflection as a function of the transmission of the nickel film. Note that the direction of the rotation at the nickel–air interface () is the opposite of that at the glass–air interface (). The left-hand scale shows the corresponding effective nonlinearity ΔχR, as calculated from Eq. (2) (Δ and ). The bottom graph shows a plot of the reflectivity from the air–nickel interface (). The solid curve is calculated from a numerical model for a refractive index of n=2.50-i4.41.15

Equations (2)

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ΘT=±32π3cλ1+nn02 Reχxxyy-χxyyxn0LIpzdz.
ΘR=±32π2Ipcn01+nn02Imχxxyy-χxyyxn1-nn02,

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