Abstract

We report on the design and initial clinical experience with a real-time endoscopic optical coherence tomography (EOCT) imaging system. The EOCT unit includes a high-speed optical coherence tomography interferometer, endoscope-compatible catheter probes, and real-time data capture and display hardware and software. Several technological innovations are introduced that improve EOCT efficiency and performance. In initial clinical studies using the EOCT system, the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, ileum, colon, and rectum of patients with normal endoscopic findings were examined. In these initial investigations, EOCT imaging clearly delineated the substructure of the mucosa and submucosa in several gastrointestinal organs; microscopic structures such as glands, blood vessels, pits, villi, and crypts were also observed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 47, 515 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Yee, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, “Optimal interferometer designs for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).
  10. B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 24, 531 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Opt. Commun. 114, 386 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1999

1998

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 47, 515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

1997

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Opt. Commun. 114, 386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Yee, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, G. L.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Yee, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 24, 531 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, V. W. S.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Yee, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chumakov, Y. P.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Denisenko, A. N.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Farahi, F.

L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Opt. Commun. 114, 386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feldchtein, F. I.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, L. A.

L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Opt. Commun. 114, 386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Gelikonov, V. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Gladkova, N. D.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 47, 515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Hee, J. A. Izatt, J. M. Jacobson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 950 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, “Optimal interferometer designs for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Jacobson, J. M.

Kobayashi, K.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 47, 515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, M. D.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 47, 515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuranov, R. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Kuznetzova, I. A.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pochinko, V. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, “Optimal interferometer designs for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

Santos, J. L.

L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Opt. Commun. 114, 386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergeev, A. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Shakhov, A. V.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Shakhova, N. M.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Sivak, M. V.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 47, 515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snopova, L. B.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Streltzova, O. S.

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 24, 531 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ung-arunyawee, R.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-W.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Willis, J.

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 47, 515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Yee, T. K.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Yee, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

K. Kobayashi, J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, J. Willis, and M. V. Sivak, Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 47, 515 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkarni, H.-W. Wang, K. Kobayashi, and M. V. Sivak, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1017 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

G. L. Abbas, V. W. S. Chan, and T. K. Yee, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-3, 1110 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, and F. Farahi, Opt. Commun. 114, 386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Ung-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, Opt. Exp. 3, 219 (1998), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

A. M. Sergeev, V. M. Gelikonov, G. V. Gelikonov, F. I. Feldchtein, R. V. Kuranov, N. D. Gladkova, N. M. Shakhova, L. B. Snopova, A. V. Shakhov, I. A. Kuznetzova, A. N. Denisenko, V. V. Pochinko, Y. P. Chumakov, and O. S. Streltzova, Opt. Exp. 1, 432 (1997), http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. M. Rollins and J. A. Izatt, “Optimal interferometer designs for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the EOCT system. Light from a high-power broadband source is coupled through an optical circulator to a fiber-optic Michelson interferometer. The EOCT catheter probe and the probe control unit constitute one arm of the interferometer, and a rapid-scanning optical delay line constitutes the other arm. The gray lines represent optical paths, and the black lines represent electronic paths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of the radial-scanning endoscopic OCT probe, which is suitable for passage through the accessory channel of a standard GI endoscope. The single-mode optical fiber is enclosed in a flexible shaft that runs the length of the catheter probe. The fiber is coupled to a gradient-index (GRIN) lens, which focuses the beam to a spot outside the transparent probe sheath. A right-angle prism redirects the probe beam perpendicular to the probe axis, and the flexible shaft rotates the entire optical assembly inside the probe sheath, providing a radial scan for image construction. We include a Faraday rotator in the distal probe optics11 to compensate for bend-induced fiber birefringence as the probe is manipulated within the body.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Individual captured EOCT frame in the normal human esophagus. The radial image depth is 2.5 mm from the probe (the scale markers represent 1 mm). The 600×600 pixel radial image was constructed from 1000 (430-pixel) A scans. Images were recorded at 4 frames/s. The outer surface of the probe sheath is labeled P. The substructure of the mucosal layer is differentiable, and the squamous epithelium (E), lamina propria (LP), and muscularis mucosae (MM) appear as dark, bright, and dark bands, respectively. Dark inclusions (arrows) can be seen in the submucosa (SubM) that correspond to blood vessels and glands. Bright inclusions in the lamina propria may correspond to lymph nodules (L). The submucosa below the muscularis mucosae appears bright, and in image regions in which the probe contacts the tissue (top-left quadrant), the dark muscularis externa (ME) can be discerned.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Individual captured EOCT frame in a normal human transverse colon. The image parameters are identical to those in Fig. 3. The outer surface of the probe sheath is labeled P. The mucosal substructure is not resolved in this case, in which the epithelium and the lamina propria are thin and folded into crypt structures. The mucosal (M) and submucosal (SubM) layers are clearly distinguished, however, and the submucosa appear as a bright band. The dark inclusions in the mucosal layer (arrows) may represent crypt structures. Small, dark inclusions in the submucosa are also evident. Where the probe compresses the tissue (bottom-right quadrant), imaging extends well into the muscular layers (ME).

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