Abstract

We show that D85N/V49A, a mutant bacteriorhodopsin in which two residues, aspartate (D) at position 85 and valine (V) at position 49, have been replaced with asparagine (N) and alanine (A), respectively, has significantly improved optical properties compared with other forms of blue-membrane Bacteriorhodopsin. Absorption studies of the mutant in gels show that it forms the P(490) state at light levels that are comparable with M-state formation in wild-type films. Theoretical calculations based on Kramers–Kronig transformation of light-induced absorption data predict that the refractive index is three times larger than that of mutant D85N. Holographic measurements performed on gelatin-based films confirm that the sensitivity is improved by a factor of 50 over that of D85N.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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1998 (2)

1996 (2)

1993 (1)

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 9 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Birge, R. R.

Brauchle, C.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crew, M.

Daisy, R.

Downie, J.

Fischer, B.

Hampp, N.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horowitz, M.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 9 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Oesterhelt, D.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peda’el, A.

Popp, A.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithey, D.

Song, Q. W.

Stuart, J.

Tallent, J.

Timucin, D.

Wolperdinger, M.

A. Popp, M. Wolperdinger, N. Hampp, C. Brauchle, and D. Oesterhelt, Biophys. J. 65, 1449 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measured change in absorbance after pumping with red light >630 nm for several mutants.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured change in absorption as a function of red-light fluence for two mutants. The initial slope D85N/V49A shows a factor-of-7 increase over D85N.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured dependence of output diffraction efficiency on writing fluence for D85N and D85N/T49A. Saturation fluences are calculated with relation (2).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured grating lifetime in D85N/V49A film.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of the Measured and Calculated Properties for the Mutants Forming the Blue Membrane

Equations (3)

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Δnω=c0πP0Δαωω2-ω2dω,
ηΔn2+Δα/2k02,
η=η0FFs+F2,

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