Abstract

Amorphous xGeO21-xSiO2 thin films exhibit large negative index changes (4–8%) in the high GeO2 region x>0.25 on irradiation with ArF laser pulses. The sign of the index change is opposite the low GeO2 region X<0.25, and the magnitude of the index change is larger by an order of magnitude than that reported so far. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope observation has revealed that nanometer-scale phase separation is induced in these highly photosensitive glasses by irradiation with ArF excimer laser light pulses or electron beams. This is a first finding of microphase separation in SiO2GeO2 glasses by irradiation and provides an essential constraint on the modeling of photonic effects induced by irradiation in these glasses.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1997 (1)

T. Fujiwara, M. Kakahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, Electron. Lett. 33, 980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

H. Hosono, K. Kawamura, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Opt. Lett. 21, 1360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, Electron. Lett. 31, 879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

V. Mizurahi, P. J. Lamaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovannii, and R. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 11,727 (1993).

K. D. Potter-Simmons, G. I. Stegeman, B. G. Potter, and J. H. Simmons, Opt. Lett. 18, 25 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Becker and K. Bange, Ultramicroscopy 52, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, Opt. Lett. 15, 102 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Shimidzu, G. E. Thompson, G. C. Wood, and K. Kobayashi, Philos. Mag. 61, 133 (1990).

1989 (1)

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. P. de Neufville and D. Turnbull, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 50, 182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, Electron. Lett. 31, 879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R.

V. Mizurahi, P. J. Lamaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovannii, and R. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 11,727 (1993).

Bange, K.

O. Becker and K. Bange, Ultramicroscopy 52, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Becker, O.

O. Becker and K. Bange, Ultramicroscopy 52, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, Electron. Lett. 31, 879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Neufville, J. P.

J. P. de Neufville and D. Turnbull, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 50, 182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovannii, D. J.

V. Mizurahi, P. J. Lamaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovannii, and R. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 11,727 (1993).

Erdogan, T.

V. Mizurahi, P. J. Lamaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovannii, and R. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 11,727 (1993).

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, M. Kakahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, Electron. Lett. 33, 980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glenn, W. H.

Hand, D. P.

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, Electron. Lett. 31, 879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hill, O.

O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Opt. Lett. 21, 1360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hosono, K. Kawamura, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A. J.

T. Fujiwara, M. Kakahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, Electron. Lett. 33, 980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, Electron. Lett. 31, 879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kakahashi, M.

T. Fujiwara, M. Kakahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, Electron. Lett. 33, 980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, K.

H. Hosono, K. Kawamura, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, H.

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Opt. Lett. 21, 1360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hosono, K. Kawamura, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kinser, D. L.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

K. Shimidzu, G. E. Thompson, G. C. Wood, and K. Kobayashi, Philos. Mag. 61, 133 (1990).

Lamaire, P. J.

V. Mizurahi, P. J. Lamaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovannii, and R. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 11,727 (1993).

Malo, B.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, Electron. Lett. 31, 879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meltz, G.

Mizurahi, V.

V. Mizurahi, P. J. Lamaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovannii, and R. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 11,727 (1993).

Morey, W. W.

Muta, K.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Opt. Lett. 21, 1360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hosono, K. Kawamura, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Potter, B. G.

Potter-Simmons, K. D.

Reed, W. A.

V. Mizurahi, P. J. Lamaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovannii, and R. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 11,727 (1993).

Russell, P. St. J.

Shimidzu, K.

K. Shimidzu, G. E. Thompson, G. C. Wood, and K. Kobayashi, Philos. Mag. 61, 133 (1990).

Simmons, J. H.

Stegeman, G. I.

Theriault, S.

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, Electron. Lett. 31, 879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, G. E.

K. Shimidzu, G. E. Thompson, G. C. Wood, and K. Kobayashi, Philos. Mag. 61, 133 (1990).

Turnbull, D.

J. P. de Neufville and D. Turnbull, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 50, 182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, R. A.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wood, G. C.

K. Shimidzu, G. E. Thompson, G. C. Wood, and K. Kobayashi, Philos. Mag. 61, 133 (1990).

Yamanaka, H.

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Opt. Lett. 21, 1360 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and J. Albert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 16, 1035 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Mizurahi, P. J. Lamaire, T. Erdogan, W. A. Reed, D. J. DiGiovannii, and R. Atkins, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 11,727 (1993).

Discuss. Faraday Soc. (1)

J. P. de Neufville and D. Turnbull, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 50, 182 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

B. Malo, J. Albert, K. O. Hill, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, and S. Theriault, Electron. Lett. 31, 879 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujiwara, M. Kakahashi, and A. J. Ikushima, Electron. Lett. 33, 980 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Hosono, K. Kawamura, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Philos. Mag. (1)

K. Shimidzu, G. E. Thompson, G. C. Wood, and K. Kobayashi, Philos. Mag. 61, 133 (1990).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

O. Becker and K. Bange, Ultramicroscopy 52, 73 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Changes in refractive index (filled circles) and thickness (open circles) of the thin films on ArF laser irradiation as a function of GeO2 content. The film thickness before irradiation was 1–200 nm. Irradiation conditions, 30 mJ/cm2/pulse×1200 pulses at 10 Hz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning-electron microscope photo of 0.38GeO20.62SiO2 glass thin films (200 nm thick) after irradiation with ArF excimer laser pulses 30mJ/cm2/pulse×1200 pulses through a silica phase mask (period, 1.06 µm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional TEM photos of the specimen 0.38GeO20.62SiO2 (a) before and (b) after ArF laser irradiation 50mJ/cm2/pulse×1200 pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional TEM photos showing evolution of nanometer-scale microstructure during electron-beam irradiation under TEM observation. Specimen, 0.38GeO20.62SiO2. (a) Just after focusing, (b) 3 min after photo (a) was taken, (c) 10 min after photo (a) was taken.

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