Abstract

Photoinduced dichroism in various polymers containing the same azo dye has been studied. “Angular hole burning” and molecular reorientation have been identified by analysis of dichroism dynamics at various probe wavelengths. The glass-transition temperature Tg is of major relevance for the reorientation of optically active molecules. For low Tg (below ambient temperature) thermal diffusion impedes anisotropy buildup. For higher Tg the angular distribution induced by the polarized pump beam is frozen. We propose a simple model based on diffusion rates in trans and cis molecules.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 3 (1998).
  3. P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Proc. SPIE 3417, 131 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Weigert, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 21, 19?615 (1919).
  5. P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Opt. Commun. 139, 92 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Dumont, NATO ASI Ser. 3 9, 501 (1996).
  7. Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sect. B 2, 359 (1992).
  8. C. Maertens, P. Dubois, R. Jérôme, P.-A. Blanche, and Ph. C. Lemaire, “Dynamics of the photoinduced orientation and relaxation of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups,” Polym. Int. (to be published).
  9. A. E. Osman and M. Dumont, Proc. SPIE 3417, 36 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Dumont and A. E. Osman, “On spontaneous and photoinduced orientational mobility of dye molecules in polymers,” Chem. Phys. (to be published).

1998 (3)

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 3 (1998).

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Proc. SPIE 3417, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Osman and M. Dumont, Proc. SPIE 3417, 36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Opt. Commun. 139, 92 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Dumont, NATO ASI Ser. 3 9, 501 (1996).

1993 (1)

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sect. B 2, 359 (1992).

1919 (1)

F. Weigert, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 21, 19?615 (1919).

Berg, R. H.

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blanche, P.-A.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 3 (1998).

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Proc. SPIE 3417, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Opt. Commun. 139, 92 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Maertens, P. Dubois, R. Jérôme, P.-A. Blanche, and Ph. C. Lemaire, “Dynamics of the photoinduced orientation and relaxation of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups,” Polym. Int. (to be published).

Dubois, P.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Proc. SPIE 3417, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 3 (1998).

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Opt. Commun. 139, 92 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Maertens, P. Dubois, R. Jérôme, P.-A. Blanche, and Ph. C. Lemaire, “Dynamics of the photoinduced orientation and relaxation of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups,” Polym. Int. (to be published).

Dumont, M.

A. E. Osman and M. Dumont, Proc. SPIE 3417, 36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Dumont, NATO ASI Ser. 3 9, 501 (1996).

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sect. B 2, 359 (1992).

M. Dumont and A. E. Osman, “On spontaneous and photoinduced orientational mobility of dye molecules in polymers,” Chem. Phys. (to be published).

Froc, G.

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C. R.

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hosotte, S.

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jérôme, R.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 3 (1998).

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Proc. SPIE 3417, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Opt. Commun. 139, 92 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Maertens, P. Dubois, R. Jérôme, P.-A. Blanche, and Ph. C. Lemaire, “Dynamics of the photoinduced orientation and relaxation of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups,” Polym. Int. (to be published).

Kristensen, E. T.

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kulinna, C.

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, Ph. C.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 3 (1998).

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Proc. SPIE 3417, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Opt. Commun. 139, 92 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Maertens, P. Dubois, R. Jérôme, P.-A. Blanche, and Ph. C. Lemaire, “Dynamics of the photoinduced orientation and relaxation of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups,” Polym. Int. (to be published).

Maertens, C.

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Proc. SPIE 3417, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 3 (1998).

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Opt. Commun. 139, 92 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Maertens, P. Dubois, R. Jérôme, P.-A. Blanche, and Ph. C. Lemaire, “Dynamics of the photoinduced orientation and relaxation of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups,” Polym. Int. (to be published).

Nielsen, A. B.

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Osman, A. E.

A. E. Osman and M. Dumont, Proc. SPIE 3417, 36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Dumont and A. E. Osman, “On spontaneous and photoinduced orientational mobility of dye molecules in polymers,” Chem. Phys. (to be published).

Pedersen, M.

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sekkat, Z.

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sect. B 2, 359 (1992).

Weigert, F.

F. Weigert, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 21, 19?615 (1919).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sect. B (1)

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sect. B 2, 359 (1992).

NATO ASI Ser. 3 (1)

M. Dumont, NATO ASI Ser. 3 9, 501 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (1)

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Opt. Commun. 139, 92 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polym. Eng. Sci. (1)

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38, 3 (1998).

Proc. SPIE (4)

P.-A. Blanche, Ph. C. Lemaire, C. Maertens, P. Dubois, and R. Jérôme, Proc. SPIE 3417, 131 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ramanujam, N. C. R. Holme, L. Nikolova, R. H. Berg, S. Hvilsted, E. T. Kristensen, C. Kulinna, A. B. Nielsen, and M. Pedersen, Proc. SPIE 3011, 319 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Osman and M. Dumont, Proc. SPIE 3417, 36 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Dumont, S. Hosotte, G. Froc, and Z. Sekkat, Proc. SPIE 2042, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. (1)

F. Weigert, Verh. Dtsch. Phys. Ges. 21, 19?615 (1919).

Other (2)

M. Dumont and A. E. Osman, “On spontaneous and photoinduced orientational mobility of dye molecules in polymers,” Chem. Phys. (to be published).

C. Maertens, P. Dubois, R. Jérôme, P.-A. Blanche, and Ph. C. Lemaire, “Dynamics of the photoinduced orientation and relaxation of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups,” Polym. Int. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure of the three compounds.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

OD dynamics: Optical pumping is switched on at t=0. The probe wavelengths and polarizations with respect to the pump polarization are noted. The dotted lines are the isotropic OD before pumping. C11-C6-Azo exhibits the same behavior at 572 nm and at 515 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the time evolution of the anisotropy, OD-OD (dotted curves), with that of the mean OD, S0t-S00/S00 (solid curves), for two compounds. The anisotropy has been normalized to the value of the mean OD on the photostationary plateau.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular distribution of the ground state, i.e., the trans (bottom) and the excited states, i.e., the cis and the other possible excited states (top). Horizontal dashed line, distribution before pumping; solid curves, AHB at the beginning of pumping cos2 θ; arrows, tendency of diffusion spreading in each level; dotted curve, resulting anisotropy after the end of pumping and full relaxation to the trans state if the diffusion is negligible in the trans state.

Metrics