Abstract

We constructed a lens-free in-line optical isolator by embedding an isolator chip in a thermally expanded core (TEC) fiber without complicated optical alignment. The chip consists of two pairs of rutile wedges and garnet plates. We fabricated the TEC fibers by heating a single-mode fiber with a 200µm outer diameter; low loss and a spot diameter as large as 49 µm were successfully obtained. The fabricated isolator has excellent optical properties, an insertion loss of 0.45 dB, and an isolation of more than 50 dB at a 1.55µm wavelength, which confirms the usefulness of the integration techniques.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Kawakami, presented at the 9th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Florence, Italy, May 1993.
  2. S. Kawakami, K. Shiraishi, and Y. Aizawa, presented at the Optoelectronics Conference (OEC ’88), Tokyo, October 1988.
  3. K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Hanaizumi, Y. Aizawa, H. Minamide, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 842 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Sato, R. Kasahara, J. Sun, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 943 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Shirasaki and K. Asama, Appl. Opt. 21, 4296 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Ohtera, O. Hanaizumi, and S. Kawakami, “Numerical analysis of eigenmodes and splice losses of thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol.
  8. K. Petermann, Electron. Lett. 12, 107 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Hanafusa, M. Horiguchi, and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 27, 1968 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Wang, T. Sato, J. Minowa, and H. Kataoka, Appl. Opt. 34, 716 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, and S. Seikai, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 109 (1986).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Sato, R. Kasahara, J. Sun, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Aizawa, H. Minamide, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 842 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Hanafusa, M. Horiguchi, and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 27, 1968 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, and S. Seikai, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1976 (1)

K. Petermann, Electron. Lett. 12, 107 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, Y.

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Aizawa, H. Minamide, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 842 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawakami, K. Shiraishi, and Y. Aizawa, presented at the Optoelectronics Conference (OEC ’88), Tokyo, October 1988.

Asama, K.

Hanafusa, H.

H. Hanafusa, M. Horiguchi, and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 27, 1968 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hanaizumi, O.

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Aizawa, H. Minamide, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 842 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtera, O. Hanaizumi, and S. Kawakami, “Numerical analysis of eigenmodes and splice losses of thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol.

Horiguchi, M.

H. Hanafusa, M. Horiguchi, and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 27, 1968 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kasahara, R.

T. Sato, R. Kasahara, J. Sun, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kataoka, H.

Kawakami, S.

T. Sato, R. Kasahara, J. Sun, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Aizawa, H. Minamide, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 842 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawakami, presented at the 9th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Florence, Italy, May 1993.

S. Kawakami, K. Shiraishi, and Y. Aizawa, presented at the Optoelectronics Conference (OEC ’88), Tokyo, October 1988.

Y. Ohtera, O. Hanaizumi, and S. Kawakami, “Numerical analysis of eigenmodes and splice losses of thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol.

Kitayama, K.

M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, and S. Seikai, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Minamide, H.

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Aizawa, H. Minamide, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 842 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Minowa, J.

Noda, J.

H. Hanafusa, M. Horiguchi, and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 27, 1968 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, M.

M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, and S. Seikai, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ohtera, Y.

Y. Ohtera, O. Hanaizumi, and S. Kawakami, “Numerical analysis of eigenmodes and splice losses of thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol.

Petermann, K.

K. Petermann, Electron. Lett. 12, 107 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

T. Sato, R. Kasahara, J. Sun, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, T. Sato, J. Minowa, and H. Kataoka, Appl. Opt. 34, 716 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seikai, S.

M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, and S. Seikai, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawakami, K. Shiraishi, and Y. Aizawa, presented at the Optoelectronics Conference (OEC ’88), Tokyo, October 1988.

Shirasaki, M.

Sun, J.

T. Sato, R. Kasahara, J. Sun, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Petermann, Electron. Lett. 12, 107 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. Hanafusa, M. Horiguchi, and J. Noda, Electron. Lett. 27, 1968 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

O. Hanaizumi, Y. Aizawa, H. Minamide, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 842 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Sato, R. Kasahara, J. Sun, and S. Kawakami, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 943 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, and S. Seikai, J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 109 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Shiraishi, Y. Aizawa, and S. Kawakami, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1151 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Y. Ohtera, O. Hanaizumi, and S. Kawakami, “Numerical analysis of eigenmodes and splice losses of thermally diffused expanded core fibers,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol.

S. Kawakami, presented at the 9th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference, Florence, Italy, May 1993.

S. Kawakami, K. Shiraishi, and Y. Aizawa, presented at the Optoelectronics Conference (OEC ’88), Tokyo, October 1988.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of a lens-free in-line optical isolator array. (b) Configuration of the isolator chip; solid and dashed lines, forward and backward beams in the chip, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated insertion loss, diffraction loss for the forward beam, and backward loss, coupling loss for the backward beam, of the isolators as a function of the MFD of TEC fibers. Low insertion loss and high backward loss are obtained by use of a larger MFD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated fundamental mode fields of a TEC fiber. The profile of the core dopant changes from step to Gaussian during heat treatment. The field with a MFD of 10 µm is calculated from the step-index profile V=2.4; the others, from the Gaussian-index profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fabrication of TEC fibers with microburners. Arrows indicate the trajectories of the nozzles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and calculated far-field patterns of the fabricated TEC fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured optical properties of the isolator as a function of the orientation of the input polarization.

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