Abstract

We demonstrate spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER) as a novel method to characterize sub-6-fs pulses with nanojoule pulse energy. SPIDER reconstructs pulse phase and amplitude from a measurement of only two optical spectra by use of a fast noniterative algorithm. SPIDER is well suited to the measurement of ultrabroadband pulses because it is quite insensitive to crystal phase-matching bandwidth and to unknown detector spectral responsivity. Moreover, it combines highly accurate pulse-shape measurement with the potential for online laser system diagnostics at video refresh rates.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, and R. Szipöcs, Appl. Phys. B 65, 175 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferenz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 22, 522 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2268 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 631 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 411 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. Richman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Cheng, A. Fürbach, S. Sartania, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 24, 247 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 4, 183 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Dorrer, S. Ranc, J.-P. Rousseau, C. Le Blanc, and J.-P. Chambaret, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG2.
  12. T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Iaconis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG1.
  13. N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 129 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (7)

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Sutter, G. Steinmeyer, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 631 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Lett. 24, 411 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Cheng, A. Fürbach, S. Sartania, M. Lenzner, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 24, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, and R. Szipöcs, Appl. Phys. B 65, 175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöcs, K. Ferenz, C. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 22, 522 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. Richman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 4, 183 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. E.

T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Iaconis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG1.

Angelow, G.

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, and R. Szipöcs, Appl. Phys. B 65, 175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bromage, J.

T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Iaconis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG1.

Chambaret, J.-P.

C. Dorrer, S. Ranc, J.-P. Rousseau, C. Le Blanc, and J.-P. Chambaret, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG2.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, Z.

Cho, S. H.

De Silvestri, S.

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. Richman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

C. Dorrer, S. Ranc, J.-P. Rousseau, C. Le Blanc, and J.-P. Chambaret, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG2.

Ferenz, K.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. Richman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, C.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 4, 183 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fürbach, A.

Gallmann, L.

Haus, H. A.

Iaconis, C.

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Iaconis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG1.

Ippen, E. P.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Kobayashi, T.

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. Richman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lacourt, A.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 4, 183 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, C.

C. Dorrer, S. Ranc, J.-P. Rousseau, C. Le Blanc, and J.-P. Chambaret, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG2.

Lenzner, M.

Matuschek, N.

Morgner, U.

Morier-Genoud, F.

Nisoli, M.

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, and R. Szipöcs, Appl. Phys. B 65, 175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ranc, S.

C. Dorrer, S. Ranc, J.-P. Rousseau, C. Le Blanc, and J.-P. Chambaret, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG2.

Richman, B.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. Richman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rousseau, J.-P.

C. Dorrer, S. Ranc, J.-P. Rousseau, C. Le Blanc, and J.-P. Chambaret, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG2.

Sakane, I.

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

Scheuer, V.

Shirakawa, A.

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shuman, T. M.

T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Iaconis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG1.

Spielmann, C.

Steinmeyer, G.

Sutter, D. H.

Svelto, O.

Sweetser, J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. Richman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Szipöcs, R.

Takasaka, M.

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. Richman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

Vienot, J. C.

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 4, 183 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Iaconis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG1.

Waxer, L. J.

T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Iaconis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG1.

Wei, Z.

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, and R. Szipöcs, Appl. Phys. B 65, 175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, and R. Szipöcs, Appl. Phys. B 65, 175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Baltuska, Z. Wei, M. S. Pshenichnikov, D. A. Wiersma, and R. Szipöcs, Appl. Phys. B 65, 175 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Shirakawa, I. Sakane, M. Takasaka, and T. Kobayashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2268 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Iaconis and I. A. Walmsley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 129 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. (1)

C. Froehly, A. Lacourt, and J. C. Vienot, Nouv. Rev. Opt. Appl. 4, 183 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, and B. Richman, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 1 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

C. Dorrer, S. Ranc, J.-P. Rousseau, C. Le Blanc, and J.-P. Chambaret, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG2.

T. M. Shuman, M. E. Anderson, J. Bromage, L. J. Waxer, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Iaconis, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), paper CFG1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SPIDER setup: GDD, SF10 glass block; PR, periscope for polarization rotation; BS, beam splitters; TS1, translation stage for adjustment of delay τ; TS2, translation stage for adjustment of temporal overlap of the short pulse pair with the stretched pulse; HA, periscope for height adjustment; FM, focusing mirror (30-cm radius of curvature); SFG, upconversion crystal [30µ m-thick type II β-barium borate (BBO)]; OMA, optical multichannel analyzer. The filled shapes represent silver-coated mirrors, and the filled circles and arrows on the beam path display the polarization state of the beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SPIDER trace of a sub-6-fs pulse (dotted curve). Additionally, the spectra of the individual upconverted pulses are shown (solid and dashed–dotted curves).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reconstructed temporal intensity profile (left) and spectral phase (right; dashed curve). The independently measured power spectrum of the pulse (right; solid curve) has a transform limit of 5.3 fs. The solid curves are referenced to the left and the dashed curves to the right vertical axes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of measured interferometric autocorrelation (IAC; dots) with the SPIDER-reconstructed IAC (solid curve).

Equations (1)

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Sωc=Eωc2+Eωc+δω2+2EωcEωc+δωcosϕωωc+δω-ϕωωc+ωcτ.

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