Abstract

We describe a time-division interferometer based on the Sagnac geometry for monitoring ultrafast changes in the real and the imaginary components of the refractive index as well as phase changes that are due to surface displacement. Particular advantages of this interferometer are its simple common-path design and operation at normal incidence with a microscope objective for both pumping and probing. Operation is demonstrated by detection of temperature changes and coherent phonon generation in a gold film.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. P. Geindre, P. Audebert, A. Rousse, F. Fallies, J. C. Gauthier, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Don Santos, G. Hamoniaux, and A. Antonetti, Opt. Lett. 19, 1997 (1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. The 90° change in polarization direction on reflection from the NPBS is taken into account. Strictly, r, r?, E1, and E2 represent averages over the optical pulse duration.
  9. Note that the fringe visibility remains finite as the intensity tends to zero. The second ?/4 waveplate introduces a phase shift in the range -90° to +90° between the reference and the probe when the electric field is resolved along xˆ-yˆ, and in the range 90° to 270° when resolved along the polarizer transmission axis xˆ+yˆ.
  10. G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 49, 9985 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. E. Gusev and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 57, 2878 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. B. Wright and V. E. Gusev, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 329 (1995).

1998 (1)

V. E. Gusev and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 57, 2878 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. Perrin, B. Bonello, J. C. Jeannet, and E. Romatet, Prog. Nat. Sci. S6, 444 (1996); C. J. K. Richardson, M. J. Ehrlich, and J. W. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1007 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

O. B. Wright and V. E. Gusev, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 329 (1995).

1994 (3)

1992 (1)

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

1986 (2)

G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Thomsen, H. T. Grahn, H. J. Maris, and J. Tauc, Phys. Rev. B 34, 4129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. M. Halbout and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982); M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

Adamietz, F.

Antonetti, A.

Arnaud, J. A.

Audebert, P.

Bonello, B.

B. Perrin, B. Bonello, J. C. Jeannet, and E. Romatet, Prog. Nat. Sci. S6, 444 (1996); C. J. K. Richardson, M. J. Ehrlich, and J. W. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1007 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Canioni, L.

Colombeau, B.

Dirk, C. W.

Don Santos, A.

Ducasse, A.

Duchesne, C.

Eesley, G. L.

G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Fallies, F.

Fargin, E.

Froehly, C.

Gabriel, M. C.

Gauthier, J. C.

Geindre, J. P.

Grahn, H. T.

C. Thomsen, H. T. Grahn, H. J. Maris, and J. Tauc, Phys. Rev. B 34, 4129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, V. E.

V. E. Gusev and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 57, 2878 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Wright and V. E. Gusev, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 329 (1995).

Halbout, J. M.

J. M. Halbout and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982); M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

Hyoguchi, T.

Jeannet, J. C.

B. Perrin, B. Bonello, J. C. Jeannet, and E. Romatet, Prog. Nat. Sci. S6, 444 (1996); C. J. K. Richardson, M. J. Ehrlich, and J. W. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1007 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, K.

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzyk, M. G.

Le Flem, B.

Maris, H. J.

C. Thomsen, H. T. Grahn, H. J. Maris, and J. Tauc, Phys. Rev. B 34, 4129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Olazcuaga, R.

Perrin, B.

B. Perrin, B. Bonello, J. C. Jeannet, and E. Romatet, Prog. Nat. Sci. S6, 444 (1996); C. J. K. Richardson, M. J. Ehrlich, and J. W. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1007 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Piasecki, J.

Romatet, E.

B. Perrin, B. Bonello, J. C. Jeannet, and E. Romatet, Prog. Nat. Sci. S6, 444 (1996); C. J. K. Richardson, M. J. Ehrlich, and J. W. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1007 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rousse, A.

Sarger, L.

Segonds, P.

Tang, C. L.

J. M. Halbout and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982); M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tauc, J.

C. Thomsen, H. T. Grahn, H. J. Maris, and J. Tauc, Phys. Rev. B 34, 4129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, M.

Thomsen, C.

C. Thomsen, H. T. Grahn, H. J. Maris, and J. Tauc, Phys. Rev. B 34, 4129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Vampouille, M.

Whitaker, N. A.

Wright, O. B.

V. E. Gusev and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 57, 2878 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Wright and V. E. Gusev, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 329 (1995).

O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 49, 9985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Wright and T. Hyoguchi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1529 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. M. Halbout and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 765 (1982); M. J. LaGasse, K. K. Anderson, H. A. Haus, and J. G. Fujimoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2068 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

O. B. Wright and V. E. Gusev, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 42, 329 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

G. L. Eesley, Phys. Rev. B 33, 2144 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Thomsen, H. T. Grahn, H. J. Maris, and J. Tauc, Phys. Rev. B 34, 4129 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 49, 9985 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Gusev and O. B. Wright, Phys. Rev. B 57, 2878 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

O. B. Wright and K. Kawashima, Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 1668 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Nat. Sci. (1)

B. Perrin, B. Bonello, J. C. Jeannet, and E. Romatet, Prog. Nat. Sci. S6, 444 (1996); C. J. K. Richardson, M. J. Ehrlich, and J. W. Wagner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1007 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

The 90° change in polarization direction on reflection from the NPBS is taken into account. Strictly, r, r?, E1, and E2 represent averages over the optical pulse duration.

Note that the fringe visibility remains finite as the intensity tends to zero. The second ?/4 waveplate introduces a phase shift in the range -90° to +90° between the reference and the probe when the electric field is resolved along xˆ-yˆ, and in the range 90° to 270° when resolved along the polarizer transmission axis xˆ+yˆ.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modified Sagnac interferometer. The λ/4 plate and polarizer combination are used to achieve maximum phase sensitivity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Phase difference in degrees between the reference and the probe after transmission through the polarizer, (b) fringe visibility, and (c) total intensity at the photodetector normalized to that before the polarizer, plotted as a function of the angle ψ of the second λ/4 plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Interferometric responses for ψ=0° and ψ=90° for a gold film as a function of delay time between the pump and the probe pulses. (c) Reflectance ρ derived from (i) the interferometric response and (ii) direct measurement. (d) Phase δϕ derived from (i) the interferometric response and (ii) the theoretical fit to the acoustic echoes.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Eψ=xˆ+yˆ2sin2ψ+i cos2ψ+1-i×sin ψ cos ψE2r-cos2 ψ+i sin2 ψ+1-isin ψ cos ψE1r.
I0E12+E22r02+2r02E12ρ-2r02E1E2δϕ,
I90E12+E22r02+2r02E12ρ+2r02E1E2δϕ.
δrr=-2ik0δz+4ik0n˜1-n˜20dn˜dηηz,t+dn˜dTTz,texp2ik0n˜zdz,

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