Abstract

We report a novel short-length diode-pumped cw fiber laser with high output power at a wavelength of 2.8 µm. The system combines continuous-wave diode pumping at 970 nm, a high doping concentration (5-mol. % ErF3) of the active fiber, and an annular geometry of the laser medium, an M-profile fiber. Output powers in excess of 1 W with a slope efficiency of 25% were obtained.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297.
  3. D. W. Chen, C. L. Fincher, T. S. Rose, F. L. Vernon, and R. A. Fields, Opt. Lett. 24, 385 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Mazé, Le Verre Fluoré, Campus de Ker Lann, F-35170 Bruz, Brittany, France (personal communication, 1999).
  9. T. Sandrock, A. Diening, and G. Huber, Opt. Lett. 24, 382 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Jensen, “Upconversion-Prozesse und Wirkungsquerschnitte in Er3+-dotierten 3 µm Fluorid- und Granat-Lasern, gepumpt mit cw und quasi-cw Dioden-Arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1996).
  11. P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirrmacher, S. Unger, and Th. Pertsch, Opt. Commun. 141, 336 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 3.
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Hebenstreit, AGFA Laborgeräte GmbH, Gewerbepark Kaplerstrasse 17-19, D-07549 Gera, Germany (personal communication, 1999).

1999 (2)

1997 (1)

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirrmacher, S. Unger, and Th. Pertsch, Opt. Commun. 141, 336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R.

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, E.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brierley, M. C.

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Carter, S. F.

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. W.

Diening, A.

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

Fincher, C. L.

Glas, P.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirrmacher, S. Unger, and Th. Pertsch, Opt. Commun. 141, 336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Graf, Th.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebenstreit, J.

J. Hebenstreit, AGFA Laborgeräte GmbH, Gewerbepark Kaplerstrasse 17-19, D-07549 Gera, Germany (personal communication, 1999).

Huber, G.

Hunt, M. H.

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jain, R. K.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297.

Jensen, T.

T. Jensen, “Upconversion-Prozesse und Wirkungsquerschnitte in Er3+-dotierten 3 µm Fluorid- und Granat-Lasern, gepumpt mit cw und quasi-cw Dioden-Arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1996).

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

Lüthy, W.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lynn, J. G.

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mazé, G.

G. Mazé, Le Verre Fluoré, Campus de Ker Lann, F-35170 Bruz, Brittany, France (personal communication, 1999).

Meichenin, D.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Millar, C. A.

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Naumann, M.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirrmacher, S. Unger, and Th. Pertsch, Opt. Commun. 141, 336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, Th.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirrmacher, S. Unger, and Th. Pertsch, Opt. Commun. 141, 336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, E.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297.

Rose, T. S.

Sandrock, T.

Schirrmacher, A.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirrmacher, S. Unger, and Th. Pertsch, Opt. Commun. 141, 336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, B.

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297.

Stoneman, R. C.

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Unger, S.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirrmacher, S. Unger, and Th. Pertsch, Opt. Commun. 141, 336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, F. L.

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (2)

C. A. Millar, M. C. Brierley, M. H. Hunt, and S. F. Carter, Electron. Lett. 26, 1871 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Auzel, D. Meichenin, and H. Poignant, Electron. Lett. 24, 1463 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirrmacher, S. Unger, and Th. Pertsch, Opt. Commun. 141, 336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Rev. A 49, 3990 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

B. Srinivasan, E. Poppe, and R. K. Jain, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 297.

T. Jensen, “Upconversion-Prozesse und Wirkungsquerschnitte in Er3+-dotierten 3 µm Fluorid- und Granat-Lasern, gepumpt mit cw und quasi-cw Dioden-Arrays,” Ph.D. dissertation (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1996).

G. Mazé, Le Verre Fluoré, Campus de Ker Lann, F-35170 Bruz, Brittany, France (personal communication, 1999).

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), Chap. 3.
[CrossRef]

J. Hebenstreit, AGFA Laborgeräte GmbH, Gewerbepark Kaplerstrasse 17-19, D-07549 Gera, Germany (personal communication, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram and excitation scheme: 1, ground-state absorption λp970 nm; 2, laser transition λL=2.79 µm; 3, competitive laser oscillation λL=850 nm; 4, upconversion depopulates the lower laser level; 5, cross relaxation; upconversion (6) and excited-state absorption (7) depopulate the upper laser level.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of the M-profile fiber, including the refractive-index profile: 1, polyacrylate coating; 2, cladding (low-refractive-index resin); 3, pump core (FG); 4, Er(5 mol. %)-doped ring (FG).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Input–output characteristics of the M-profile fiber laser for two fiber lengths, 54 and 30 cm. In both cases the outcoupling mirror had a transmission of T2=18%. As it is obvious that less output power is emitted from the shorter fiber, we limited the launched pump power to Ppump=2.79 W to avoid damage of this fiber. The dashed lines were calculated with data from a Findlay–Clay analysis.

Equations (1)

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M2πRringNAring/λL,

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