Abstract

We report room-temperature mid-IR laser operation in a new low-phonon-frequency nonhygroscopic host crystal, calcium thiogallate CaGa2S4. Laser action at 4.314.38 µm on the Dy3+ H611/2H613/2 transition occurred with a maximum slope efficiency of 1.6%.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.
  2. T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, J. Lumin. 72, 419 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Heo and Y. B. Shin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 162 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Opt. Lett. 19, 904 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. P. Barnes and R. E. Allen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 277 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. A. Kaminskii, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers-80 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), p. 328.
  7. L. F. Johnson and J. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 96 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Djeu, V. E. Hartwell, A. A. Kaminskii, and A. V. Butashin, Opt. Lett. 22, 997 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. B. M. Antipenko, A. L. Ashkalunin, A. A. Mak, B. V. Sinitsyn, Yu. V. Tomashevich, and G. S. Shakhka-lamyan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 560 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. A. Kaminskii, K. Kurbanov, and T. V. Uvarova, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 1049 (1987).
  11. J. F. Pinto, G. H. Rosenblatt, and L. Esterowitz, Electron. Lett. 30, 1596 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Kaminskii, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 45, 348 (1981).
  13. P. F. Moulton, J. G. Manni, and G. A. Rines, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 960 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. V. Petrov and A. M. Thachuk, Opt. Spectrosc. 45, 81 (1978).
  15. J. Machan, M. Bass, and M. Birnbaum, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 414.
  16. A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, and A. O. Ivanov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308 (1976).
  17. R. C. Eckardt, L. Esterowitz, and I. D. Abella, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), p. 160.
  18. L. Esterowitz, R. C. Eckardt, and R. E. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 236 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. E. Peters and J. A. Baglio, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 230 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. N. Georgobiani, B. G. Tagiev, O. B. Tagiev, and B. M. Izzatov, Inorg. Mater. 31, 16 (1995).
  22. M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Rosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 524.
  23. R. Ibañez, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, J. Solid State Chem. 53, 406 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollack, “Method for growing crystals,” U.S. patent5,611,856 (March18, 1997).
  25. P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollack, J. Cryst. Growth 174, 278 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, New York, 1996), p. 98.
  27. L. A. Riseberg, W. B. Gandrud, and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 159, 262 (1967).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (3)

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollack, J. Cryst. Growth 174, 278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, J. Lumin. 72, 419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Djeu, V. E. Hartwell, A. A. Kaminskii, and A. V. Butashin, Opt. Lett. 22, 997 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

J. Heo and Y. B. Shin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. N. Georgobiani, B. G. Tagiev, O. B. Tagiev, and B. M. Izzatov, Inorg. Mater. 31, 16 (1995).

1994 (2)

J. F. Pinto, G. H. Rosenblatt, and L. Esterowitz, Electron. Lett. 30, 1596 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Wei, D. P. Machewirth, J. Wenzel, E. Snitzer, and G. H. Sigel, Opt. Lett. 19, 904 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

N. P. Barnes and R. E. Allen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 277 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

P. F. Moulton, J. G. Manni, and G. A. Rines, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 960 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Kurbanov, and T. V. Uvarova, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 1049 (1987).

1984 (1)

R. Ibañez, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, J. Solid State Chem. 53, 406 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 45, 348 (1981).

1980 (1)

B. M. Antipenko, A. L. Ashkalunin, A. A. Mak, B. V. Sinitsyn, Yu. V. Tomashevich, and G. S. Shakhka-lamyan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 560 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

L. Esterowitz, R. C. Eckardt, and R. E. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 236 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. V. Petrov and A. M. Thachuk, Opt. Spectrosc. 45, 81 (1978).

1976 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, and A. O. Ivanov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308 (1976).

1973 (1)

L. F. Johnson and J. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 96 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. E. Peters and J. A. Baglio, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 230 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

L. A. Riseberg, W. B. Gandrud, and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 159, 262 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abella, I. D.

R. C. Eckardt, L. Esterowitz, and I. D. Abella, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), p. 160.

Allen, R. E.

N. P. Barnes and R. E. Allen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 277 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Esterowitz, R. C. Eckardt, and R. E. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 236 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Antipenko, B. M.

B. M. Antipenko, A. L. Ashkalunin, A. A. Mak, B. V. Sinitsyn, Yu. V. Tomashevich, and G. S. Shakhka-lamyan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 560 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ashkalunin, A. L.

B. M. Antipenko, A. L. Ashkalunin, A. A. Mak, B. V. Sinitsyn, Yu. V. Tomashevich, and G. S. Shakhka-lamyan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 560 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baglio, J. A.

T. E. Peters and J. A. Baglio, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 230 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes and R. E. Allen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 277 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

J. Machan, M. Bass, and M. Birnbaum, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 414.

Birnbaum, M.

J. Machan, M. Bass, and M. Birnbaum, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 414.

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.

Butaeva, T. I.

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, and A. O. Ivanov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308 (1976).

Butashin, A. V.

Djeu, N.

Eckardt, R. C.

L. Esterowitz, R. C. Eckardt, and R. E. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 236 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Eckardt, L. Esterowitz, and I. D. Abella, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), p. 160.

Esterowitz, L.

J. F. Pinto, G. H. Rosenblatt, and L. Esterowitz, Electron. Lett. 30, 1596 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Esterowitz, R. C. Eckardt, and R. E. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 236 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Eckardt, L. Esterowitz, and I. D. Abella, in Digest of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), p. 160.

Feldman, B. J.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.

Fouassier, C.

R. Ibañez, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, J. Solid State Chem. 53, 406 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gambaryan, I.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.

Gandrud, W. B.

L. A. Riseberg, W. B. Gandrud, and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 159, 262 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ganem, J.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.

Garcia, A.

R. Ibañez, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, J. Solid State Chem. 53, 406 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Georgobiani, A. N.

A. N. Georgobiani, B. G. Tagiev, O. B. Tagiev, and B. M. Izzatov, Inorg. Mater. 31, 16 (1995).

Guggenheim, J. J.

L. F. Johnson and J. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 96 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hagenmuller, P.

R. Ibañez, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, J. Solid State Chem. 53, 406 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Hartwell, V. E.

Heo, J.

J. Heo and Y. B. Shin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, J. Lumin. 72, 419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ibañez, R.

R. Ibañez, A. Garcia, C. Fouassier, and P. Hagenmuller, J. Solid State Chem. 53, 406 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Isaenko, L. I.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Rosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 524.

Ivanov, A. O.

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, and A. O. Ivanov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308 (1976).

Izzatov, B. M.

A. N. Georgobiani, B. G. Tagiev, O. B. Tagiev, and B. M. Izzatov, Inorg. Mater. 31, 16 (1995).

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson and J. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 96 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

N. Djeu, V. E. Hartwell, A. A. Kaminskii, and A. V. Butashin, Opt. Lett. 22, 997 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Kurbanov, and T. V. Uvarova, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 1049 (1987).

A. A. Kaminskii, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Ser. Fiz. 45, 348 (1981).

A. A. Kaminskii, T. I. Butaeva, and A. O. Ivanov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 308 (1976).

A. A. Kaminskii, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Lasers-80 (STS, McLean, Va., 1981), p. 328.

Kirkpatrick, S. M.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering (Springer, New York, 1996), p. 98.

Krupke, W. F.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Rosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 524.

Kurbanov, K.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Kurbanov, and T. V. Uvarova, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 1049 (1987).

Machan, J.

J. Machan, M. Bass, and M. Birnbaum, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 7 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1988), p. 414.

Machewirth, D. P.

Mak, A. A.

B. M. Antipenko, A. L. Ashkalunin, A. A. Mak, B. V. Sinitsyn, Yu. V. Tomashevich, and G. S. Shakhka-lamyan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 560 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Manni, J. G.

P. F. Moulton, J. G. Manni, and G. A. Rines, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 960 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moos, H. W.

L. A. Riseberg, W. B. Gandrud, and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 159, 262 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

P. F. Moulton, J. G. Manni, and G. A. Rines, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 960 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nostrand, M. C.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Rosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 524.

Page, R. H.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Rosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 524.

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, J. Lumin. 72, 419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Rosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 524.

Peters, T. E.

T. E. Peters and J. A. Baglio, J. Electrochem. Soc. 119, 230 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, M. V.

M. V. Petrov and A. M. Thachuk, Opt. Spectrosc. 45, 81 (1978).

Pinto, J. F.

J. F. Pinto, G. H. Rosenblatt, and L. Esterowitz, Electron. Lett. 30, 1596 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, T. M.

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollack, J. Cryst. Growth 174, 278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollack, “Method for growing crystals,” U.S. patent5,611,856 (March18, 1997).

Rines, G. A.

P. F. Moulton, J. G. Manni, and G. A. Rines, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 960 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Riseberg, L. A.

L. A. Riseberg, W. B. Gandrud, and H. W. Moos, Phys. Rev. 159, 262 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, G. H.

J. F. Pinto, G. H. Rosenblatt, and L. Esterowitz, Electron. Lett. 30, 1596 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Samson, B. N.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, J. Lumin. 72, 419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sanamyan, T.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.

Schunemann, P. G.

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollack, J. Cryst. Growth 174, 278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Schunemann and T. M. Pollack, “Method for growing crystals,” U.S. patent5,611,856 (March18, 1997).

M. C. Nostrand, R. H. Page, S. A. Payne, W. F. Krupke, P. G. Schunemann, and L. I. Isaenko, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Rosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 524.

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, B. N. Samson, and D. N. Payne, J. Lumin. 72, 419 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Searles, S.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.

Shakhka-lamyan, G. S.

B. M. Antipenko, A. L. Ashkalunin, A. A. Mak, B. V. Sinitsyn, Yu. V. Tomashevich, and G. S. Shakhka-lamyan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 560 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, L. B.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.

Shin, Y. B.

J. Heo and Y. B. Shin, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 196, 162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sigel, G. H.

Sinitsyn, B. V.

B. M. Antipenko, A. L. Ashkalunin, A. A. Mak, B. V. Sinitsyn, Yu. V. Tomashevich, and G. S. Shakhka-lamyan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 560 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Snitzer, E.

Tagiev, B. G.

A. N. Georgobiani, B. G. Tagiev, O. B. Tagiev, and B. M. Izzatov, Inorg. Mater. 31, 16 (1995).

Tagiev, O. B.

A. N. Georgobiani, B. G. Tagiev, O. B. Tagiev, and B. M. Izzatov, Inorg. Mater. 31, 16 (1995).

Thachuk, A. M.

M. V. Petrov and A. M. Thachuk, Opt. Spectrosc. 45, 81 (1978).

Tomashevich, Yu. V.

B. M. Antipenko, A. L. Ashkalunin, A. A. Mak, B. V. Sinitsyn, Yu. V. Tomashevich, and G. S. Shakhka-lamyan, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 560 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Uvarova, T. V.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. Kurbanov, and T. V. Uvarova, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR Neorg. Mater. 23, 1049 (1987).

Vartanyan, E.

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, S. Searles, S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. Ganem, I. Gambaryan, T. Sanamyan, E. Vartanyan, and B. J. Feldman, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 534.

Wei, K.

Wenzel, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Esterowitz, R. C. Eckardt, and R. E. Allen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 236 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson and J. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 96 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. F. Pinto, G. H. Rosenblatt, and L. Esterowitz, Electron. Lett. 30, 1596 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

P. F. Moulton, J. G. Manni, and G. A. Rines, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 960 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, L. B. Shaw, B. J. Feldman, and J. Ganem, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 646 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes and R. E. Allen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 277 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Mater. (1)

A. N. Georgobiani, B. G. Tagiev, O. B. Tagiev, and B. M. Izzatov, Inorg. Mater. 31, 16 (1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy levels and laser scheme of trivalent dysprosium.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarized absorption (abs.) spectrum for CaGa2S4:Dy3+, which is biaxial.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Slope-efficiency curves for CaGa2S4:Dy3+ at 4.31 µm. T is the total mirror transmission HR+OC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectrum and laser output near 4.3 µm in CaGa2S4:Dy3+. When it is purged with nitrogen, the laser operates at the peak 4.31 µm of the fluorescence spectrum. When the laser is unpurged, the added loss owing to ambient CO2 absorption shifts the laser to a longer wavelength 4.38 µm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Spectroscopic Data for CaGa2S4:Dy3+

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Table 2 Summary of CaGa2S4:Dy3+ 4.31-µm Laser Threshold and Slope Dataa

Equations (2)

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Eincth=πwp2+wl24σemηpηabshcλpL+T,
ηslope=ηpηBλpλlTL+T,

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