Abstract

We report what is to our knowledge the first 3µm fiber laser of the 1-W class. 1.7 W of output power and 17.3% slope efficiency (with respect to the launched pump power) at a wavelength of 2.71 µm are demonstrated from a double-clad erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber diode pumped at 790 nm. Energy transfer from the Er3+ lower laser level to a Pr3+ codopant decreases ground-state bleaching and excited-state absorption, thus avoiding output-power saturation. This result represents more than an order-of-magnitude improvement over previous work of which we are aware. Advantages over current crystal-laser designs include nearly transverse-fundamental-mode operation, reduced thermal effects, and ease of use, e.g., in medical endoscopy.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1999

1998

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Jackson and T. A. King, Opt. Lett. 23, 1462 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 59, 621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, C. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R.

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Altermatt, H. J.

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 59, 621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bedö, S.

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunea, G.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bunea, M.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H. T.

Chen, D. W.

Diening, A.

Esterowitz, L.

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

Fincher, C. L.

Frenz, M.

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 59, 621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frerichs, C.

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, C. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ghisler, Ch.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Digest of 1998 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD1.7.

Hauschild, D.

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, C. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Ith, M.

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 59, 621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

Jain, R. K.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Digest of 1998 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD1.7.

Jensen, T.

King, T. A.

Lüthy, W.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pratisto, H.

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 59, 621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pulaski, P.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Digest of 1998 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD1.7.

Rose, T. S.

Schneider, J.

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, C. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, B.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Digest of 1998 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD1.7.

Többen, H.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, F. L.

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 59, 621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

West, G. F.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wetenkamp, L.

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, C. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Digest of 1998 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD1.7.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Ith, H. Pratisto, H. J. Altermatt, M. Frenz, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 59, 621 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. B 67, 23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, G. Bunea, M. Bunea, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3564 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Pollnau, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1982 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves

J. Schneider, D. Hauschild, C. Frerichs, and L. Wetenkamp, Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 15, 1907 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Többen, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 25 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Bedö, M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, Opt. Commun. 116, 81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

L. Esterowitz and R. Allen, Proc. SPIE 1048, 129 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Zhao, B. Srinivasan, P. Pulaski, S. Gupta, and R. K. Jain, in Digest of 1998 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Europe (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), postdeadline paper CPD1.7.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Partial energy-level diagram of Er3+ and Pr3+ in ZBLAN glass, indicating the processes that are relevant for operation of the high-power diode-pumped Pr3+-codoped Er3+ fiber laser at the transition I411/2I413/2. GSA, ground-state absorption.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the high-power diode-pumped 3µm ZBLAN fiber laser: L1, pump-focusing lens; L2, laser output collimating lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power at 2.7 µm versus launched pump power at 790 nm of the diode-pumped ZBLAN fiber laser for resonators A and B. The pump threshold is 0.5 W, and the slope efficiency is 17.3% with respect to the launched pump power for resonator B.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured rf spectrum of the laser output for resonator B, in which 3.6 W of pump power was launched and a 10.5-m length of fiber was used. The inset shows pump-induced modulations at 10 and 125 kHz and the corresponding beats.

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