Abstract

We present a compact, robust, solid-state blue-light (490-nm) source capable of greater than 5 mW of output in a TEM00 mode. This device is an optically pumped, vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser with an intracavity frequency-doubling crystal.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Fasol, S. Nakamura, and I. Davies, The Blue Laser Diode:?GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, New York, 1997).
  2. L. Goldberg, L. E. Busse, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2327 (1993); W. Wang, M. M. Fejer, R. H. Hammond, M. R. Beasley, and C. H. Ahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 729 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. J. Kozlovsky, W. Lenth, E. E. Latta, A. Moser, and G. L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2291 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, D. E. Mars, T. Takeuchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1895 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Ghosh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3311 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Calculated using SNLO, written by A. V. Smith. SNLO may be downloaded free of charge at www.sandia.gov/imrl/XWEB1128/xxtal.htm .

1997 (2)

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, D. E. Mars, T. Takeuchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Ghosh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Goldberg, L. E. Busse, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2327 (1993); W. Wang, M. M. Fejer, R. H. Hammond, M. R. Beasley, and C. H. Ahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 729 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. Lenth, E. E. Latta, A. Moser, and G. L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2291 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G. L.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. Lenth, E. E. Latta, A. Moser, and G. L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2291 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Busse, L. E.

L. Goldberg, L. E. Busse, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2327 (1993); W. Wang, M. M. Fejer, R. H. Hammond, M. R. Beasley, and C. H. Ahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 729 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, I.

G. Fasol, S. Nakamura, and I. Davies, The Blue Laser Diode:?GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, New York, 1997).

Fasol, G.

G. Fasol, S. Nakamura, and I. Davies, The Blue Laser Diode:?GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, New York, 1997).

Ghosh, G.

G. Ghosh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, L.

L. Goldberg, L. E. Busse, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2327 (1993); W. Wang, M. M. Fejer, R. H. Hammond, M. R. Beasley, and C. H. Ahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 729 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gona, G. L.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jaeckel, H.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, Y.

N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, D. E. Mars, T. Takeuchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. G.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovsky, W. J.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. Lenth, E. E. Latta, A. Moser, and G. L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2291 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Latta, E. E.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. Lenth, E. E. Latta, A. Moser, and G. L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2291 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lear, K. L.

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. Lenth, E. E. Latta, A. Moser, and G. L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2291 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mars, D. E.

N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, D. E. Mars, T. Takeuchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mehuys, D.

L. Goldberg, L. E. Busse, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2327 (1993); W. Wang, M. M. Fejer, R. H. Hammond, M. R. Beasley, and C. H. Ahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 729 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mikoshiba, N.

N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, D. E. Mars, T. Takeuchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moser, A.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. Lenth, E. E. Latta, A. Moser, and G. L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2291 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, S.

N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, D. E. Mars, T. Takeuchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

G. Fasol, S. Nakamura, and I. Davies, The Blue Laser Diode:?GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, New York, 1997).

Risk, W. P.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, D. E. Mars, T. Takeuchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, D. E. Mars, T. Takeuchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

L. Goldberg, L. E. Busse, and D. Mehuys, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2327 (1993); W. Wang, M. M. Fejer, R. H. Hammond, M. R. Beasley, and C. H. Ahn, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 729 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. Lenth, E. E. Latta, A. Moser, and G. L. Bona, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 2291 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Gona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, Y. Kaneko, S. Nakagawa, D. E. Mars, T. Takeuchi, and N. Mikoshiba, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1895 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Ghosh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 3311 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. W. Chow, K. D. Choquette, M. H. Crawford, K. L. Lear, and G. R. Hadley, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1810 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Calculated using SNLO, written by A. V. Smith. SNLO may be downloaded free of charge at www.sandia.gov/imrl/XWEB1128/xxtal.htm .

G. Fasol, S. Nakamura, and I. Davies, The Blue Laser Diode:?GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, New York, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The polarization of the diode pump laser is rotated with a half-wave λ/2 plate before the beam is condensed with a 25-mm radius-of-curvature spherical mirror. The Brewster plate is used to condition the beam to project a circular profile onto the gain element. The semiconductor gain element is mounted upon a copper plate, a thermoelectric cooler, and a heat sink. The curved mirror on the KNbO3 crystal and the integral mirror on the gain element complete the VECSEL cavity. HR, high reflector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Semiconductor gain region and the DBR grown upon a GaAs substrate. The sections labeled Gain Region and DBR are repeated 15 and 27 times, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output blue power + exceeding 5 mW for an incident pump power of approximately 300 mW. Although the output IR power is only 1 mW, the circulating power in the cavity approaches 3.4 W. The inset shows the far-field intensity pattern for the blue beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of the (a) fundamental and (b) second-harmonic laser outputs, acquired simultaneously. The crystal frequency-doubling phase-matching peak is located near 982.7 nm.

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