Abstract

The birefringence of a π-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating can be determined with high accuracy by measurement of the polarization-induced spectral splitting of its narrow central transmission window. The use of this feature for sensing of a load applied in the direction transverse to the optical fiber is demonstrated. A distributed force resolution of 1.4×10-3 N/mm was obtained, which corresponds to a difference in the principal strains of the fiber core of 0.5 µϵ. We also show that the transverse load response of the sensor is insensitive to temperature.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, Electron. Lett. 32, 1223 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. M. Nelson, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3042, 218 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).
  4. D. Yu Stepanov, J. Canning, and Z. Brodzeli, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 407–409.
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. L. Bisplinghoff, J. W. Mar, and T. H. H. Pian, Statics of Deformable Solids (Dover, New York, 1990).

1997 (1)

C. M. Nelson, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3042, 218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, Electron. Lett. 32, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Atia, W. A.

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, Electron. Lett. 32, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bisplinghoff, R. L.

R. L. Bisplinghoff, J. W. Mar, and T. H. H. Pian, Statics of Deformable Solids (Dover, New York, 1990).

Brodzeli, Z.

D. Yu Stepanov, J. Canning, and Z. Brodzeli, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 407–409.
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Yu Stepanov, J. Canning, and Z. Brodzeli, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 407–409.
[CrossRef]

Dunphy, J. R.

J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).

Ferraro, P.

J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).

Imparato, S. I.

J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).

Mar, J. W.

R. L. Bisplinghoff, J. W. Mar, and T. H. H. Pian, Statics of Deformable Solids (Dover, New York, 1990).

Meltz, G.

J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).

Nelson, C. M.

C. M. Nelson, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3042, 218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, D. V.

C. M. Nelson, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3042, 218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pian, T. H. H.

R. L. Bisplinghoff, J. W. Mar, and T. H. H. Pian, Statics of Deformable Solids (Dover, New York, 1990).

Sceats, M. G.

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Signorazzi, M.

J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).

Singh, H.

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, Electron. Lett. 32, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sirkis, J. S.

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, Electron. Lett. 32, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, D. Yu

D. Yu Stepanov, J. Canning, and Z. Brodzeli, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 407–409.
[CrossRef]

Udd, E.

C. M. Nelson, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3042, 218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vannucci, A.

J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).

Varasi, M.

J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).

Voto, C.

J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).

Wagreich, R. B.

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, Electron. Lett. 32, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

R. B. Wagreich, W. A. Atia, H. Singh, and J. S. Sirkis, Electron. Lett. 32, 1223 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning and M. G. Sceats, Electron. Lett. 30, 1344 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. M. Nelson, D. V. Nelson, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3042, 218 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, M. Varasi, A. Vannucci, M. Signorazzi, P. Ferraro, S. I. Imparato, and C. Voto, “Embedded optical sensor capable of strain and temperature measurement using a single diffraction grating,” U.S. patent5,399,854 (March21, 1995).

D. Yu Stepanov, J. Canning, and Z. Brodzeli, in European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC’98) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 1998), pp. 407–409.
[CrossRef]

R. L. Bisplinghoff, J. W. Mar, and T. H. H. Pian, Statics of Deformable Solids (Dover, New York, 1990).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of π-phase-shifted Bragg grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Grating interrogation and loading setups.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of transverse loading on π-phase-shifted grating for three different orientations of the optical fiber relative to the loading direction. The dashed lines show the result of our theoretical simulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temperature dependence of the free grating birefringence (bottom curve) and of the transverse load response slope (top curve) of a π-phase-shifted grating.

Equations (5)

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B=Δnn¯=Δλλ¯,
Δλ0=λ0n¯2/2P12-P11ϵ10-ϵ20.
ϵx0=ϵ10+ϵ202+ϵ10-ϵ202cos2ψ, ϵy0=ϵ10+ϵ202-ϵ10-ϵ202cos2ψ, γxy0=-ϵ10-ϵ202sin2ψ,
Δλ=Δλ0 cos2ψ+λ0n022P12-P11×ϵxΔ-ϵyΔ2+Δλ0 sin2ψ21/2.
ϵxΔ-ϵyΔ=81+νfEfFπdf,

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