Abstract

We report what is believed to be the first demonstration of laser frequency stabilization directly to persistent spectral holes in a solid-state material. The frequency reference material was deuterated CaF2:Tm3+ prepared with 25-MHz-wide persistent spectral holes on the H6 3H4 3 transition at 798 nm. The beat frequency between two lasers that were independently locked to persistent spectral holes in separate crystal samples showed typical root Allan variances of 780±120 Hz for 20–50-ms integration times.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1999 (1)

N. M. Strickland, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 59, 14328 (1999); N. M. Strickland and G. D. Jones, Phys. Rev. B 56, 10916 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

R. W. Equall, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2179 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. G. Libbrecht and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

1985 (1)

1983 (3)

N. W. Carlson, L. J. Rothberg, A. G. Yodh, W. R. Babbitt, and T. W. Mossberg, Opt. Lett. 8, 483 (1983); M. Zhu, W. R. Babbitt, and C. M. Jefferson, Opt. Lett. 20, 2514 (1995); K. D. Merkel and W. R. Babbitt, Opt. Lett. 24, 172 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

Abramovici, A.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control UFFC-34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Althouse, W. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babbitt, W. R.

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, N. W.

Cone, R. L.

N. M. Strickland, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 59, 14328 (1999); N. M. Strickland and G. D. Jones, Phys. Rev. B 56, 10916 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Equall, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2179 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demtröder, W.

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 794.

Drever, R. W. P.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Elman, U.

Equall, R. W.

R. W. Equall, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2179 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisk, P. T. H.

N. B. Manson, M. J. Sellars, P. T. H. Fisk, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 64, 19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gürsel, Y.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

K. G. Libbrecht and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G. D.

Kachru, R.

Kawamura, S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kröll, S.

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Libbrecht, K. G.

K. G. Libbrecht and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

Liu, K.

Luo, B.

Macfarlane, R. M.

N. M. Strickland, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 59, 14328 (1999); N. M. Strickland and G. D. Jones, Phys. Rev. B 56, 10916 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Equall, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2179 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Macfarlane, R. J. Reeves, and G. D. Jones, Opt. Lett. 12, 660 (1987); R. J. Reeves and R. M. Macfarlane, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 763 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Winnacker, R. M. Shelby, and R. M. Macfarlane, Opt. Lett. 10, 350 (1985); R. M. Macfarlane and G. Wittman, Opt. Lett. 21, 1289 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manson, N. B.

N. B. Manson, M. J. Sellars, P. T. H. Fisk, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 64, 19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, R. S.

N. B. Manson, M. J. Sellars, P. T. H. Fisk, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 64, 19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mlynek, J.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Raub, F. J.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeves, R. J.

Rothberg, L. J.

Ruoso, G.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seel, S.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sellars, M. J.

N. B. Manson, M. J. Sellars, P. T. H. Fisk, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 64, 19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

Shen, X. A.

Shoemaker, D.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sievers, L.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spero, R. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Storz, R.

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Strickland, N. M.

N. M. Strickland, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 59, 14328 (1999); N. M. Strickland and G. D. Jones, Phys. Rev. B 56, 10916 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

R. W. Equall, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2179 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorne, K. S.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogt, R. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, H.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitcomb, S. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winnacker, A.

Yodh, A. G.

Zucker, M. E.

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, Appl. Phys. B 31, 97 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, Appl. Phys. B 32, 145 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

D. W. Allan, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control UFFC-34, 647 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

N. B. Manson, M. J. Sellars, P. T. H. Fisk, and R. S. Meltzer, J. Lumin. 64, 19 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

N. M. Strickland, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. B 59, 14328 (1999); N. M. Strickland and G. D. Jones, Phys. Rev. B 56, 10916 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Seel, R. Storz, G. Ruoso, J. Mlynek, and S. Schiller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 4741 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Equall, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, and R. M. Macfarlane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2179 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. G. Libbrecht and J. L. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2133 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gürsel, S. Kawamura, F. J. Raub, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. E. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 325 (1992); K. Danzman, Class. Quantum Grav. 14, 1399 (1997); S. L. Larson, W. A. Hiscock, and R. W. Hellings are preparing a manuscript to be called “Sensitivity curves for spaceborne gravitational wave interferometers.”
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

W. Demtröder, Laser Spectroscopy, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996), p. 794.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for frequency locking to spectral holes and beat-frequency characterization of relative laser stability. EOM’s, electro-optic phase modulators; Osc.’s, oscillators.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Error signals derived from a shallow persistent spectral hole burned on the H6 3H4 3 transition of deuterated CaF2:Tm3+: (a) Transmission over the entire inhomogeneously broadened absorption profile and (b) transmission over a smaller frequency range; (c), (d) error signals over the corresponding frequency ranges. The arrow in (a) indicates the spectral hole.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in heterodyne beat signal between two lasers that are independently locked to separate persistent spectral holes and sampled at 50-ms intervals: (a) laser locked with moderate irradiance of 900 µW/cm2, (b) laser locked with a tenfold reduction in irradiance, (c) both lasers free running for comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Root Allan variance values for the beat frequency between two lasers: (a) lasers free running, (b) lasers actively locked to spectral holes in separate crystals. Circles, mean of five 100-sample Allan variances measured directly by a frequency counter; triangles, values calculated from beat-frequency data [cf. Fig. 3(a)]. Typical uncertainties are ±10%, similar to the data point size.

Metrics