Abstract

We report a novel method to increase the UV photosensitivity of GeO2:SiO2 optical fibers based on exposure to CO2 laser irradiation before grating writing. Fibers treated with a CO2 laser can produce gratings with refractive-index modulation two times greater and a Bragg wavelength that can be 2 nm longer than those of untreated fibers. Experiments on GeO2:SiO2 preform samples treated with a CO2 laser in a way similar to the fibers showed a marked increase of the 242-nm absorption band, which is associated with an increase of germanium oxygen-deficient centers and is believed to be responsible for the higher photorefractive response.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, Opt. Lett. 18, 953 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.
  8. K. C. Byron, “Bragg gratings in waveguides,” U.S. patent5,694,502 (December2, 1997).
  9. J. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 57 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1287 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1287 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, Opt. Lett. 18, 953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abe, M.

Abe, Y.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ainslie, B. J.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Armitage, J. R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, R. M.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, Opt. Lett. 18, 953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.

Byron, K. C.

K. C. Byron, “Bragg gratings in waveguides,” U.S. patent5,694,502 (December2, 1997).

Campbell, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cordier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Delevaque, E.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, Y.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1287 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Hill, K. O.

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, Opt. Lett. 18, 953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A. J.

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1287 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, Opt. Lett. 18, 953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.

Kashyap, R.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

Kawachi, T.

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1287 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, H.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kilian, A.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.

Kinser, D. L.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Leconte, B.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, J. Albert, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, and M. Kawachi, Opt. Lett. 18, 953 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.

Mizrahi, V.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Morse, T. F.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.

Muta, K.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oh, K.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.

Payne, D. N.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poignant, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reed, W. A.

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reimhart, L.

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.

Sigel, G. H.

J. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1287 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taunay, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weeks, R. A.

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. L.

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, M. G.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Telecommun. (1)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, B. Leconte, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, J. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, Ann. Telecommun. 52, 543 (1997); A. Othonos, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 4309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Takahashi, T. Fujiwara, T. Kawachi, and A. J. Ikushima, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1287 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, Y. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, and B. S. Kawasaki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 647 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

P. J. Lemaire, R. M. Atkins, V. Mizrahi, and W. A. Reed, Electron. Lett. 29, 1191 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Williams, B. J. Ainslie, J. R. Armitage, R. Kashyap, and R. Campbell, Electron. Lett. 29, 45 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, M. G. Xu, and D. N. Payne, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1048 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

J. Lee, G. H. Sigel, and J. Li, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 57 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Hosono, Y. Abe, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, K. Muta, and H. Kawazoe, Phys. Rev. B 46, 11445 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. O. Hill, B. Malo, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, T. F. Morse, A. Kilian, L. Reimhart, and K. Oh, in Optical Fiber Communication, Vol. 1 of 1991 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1991), p. 14.

K. C. Byron, “Bragg gratings in waveguides,” U.S. patent5,694,502 (December2, 1997).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflection spectra of the gratings written in fiber exposed to the CO2 laser for 15 s (intensity, 350 W/cm2) and in the untreated fiber. N.A. and external diameter of the fiber, 0.28 and 120 µm, respectively; UV pulse energy and frequency, 200 mJ/cm2 and 20 Hz; grating length, 1.5 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the induced Δn on CO2 laser intensity. Filled symbols, fibers heated by the CO2 laser and cooled by liquid nitrogen; open symbols, fibers treated with the CO2 laser only. Circles, Δnmod; triangles, Δnave. Gratings were written by exposure of fibers to a pulsed excimer laser (pulse energy, 300 mJ/cm2; frequency, 20 Hz; pulse duration, 20 ns). Inset, dependence of Δnmod on the cumulative CO2 laser exposure. The fiber has been exposed to the 4-W cw laser for 3 s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of a preform slide 110 µm thick exposed to the CO2 laser radiation (intensity, 210 W/cm2). Inset, dependence of the 242-nm peak absorption on cumulative CO2 laser exposure time; the fitted curve is a stretched exponential: A=7.56+121-exp×-0.0282t0.72.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Intensity of a 244-nm laser transmitted through a preform slide 140 µm thick as a function of time. The CO2 laser P=280 W/cm2 is turned on at t=5 s and switched off at t=12 s. Regions labeled 1 and 2 are ranges of time where the temperature is below 300–500 °C and GODC reduction dominates GODC generation.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δnave=neffΔλBλBη, Rλ=πΔnmodLλsinc4πnavλB-λL2λB22,

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