Abstract

A Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser operating at a repetition rate of 2 GHz is demonstrated. A mirror-dispersion-controlled unidirectional ring cavity delivers nearly bandwidth-limited pulses of 23-fs length. Mode locking is self-starting without a hard aperture in the cavity. The advantages of this high-repetition-rate oscillator in optical time-resolved spectroscopy are demonstrated.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Ramaswamy and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 1756 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Stingl, Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, and F. Krausz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 66.
  4. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbet, Opt. Lett. 16, 42 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Gäbel, P. Russbüldt, R. Lebert, P. Loosen, R. Proprawe, and A. Valster, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 157.
  6. R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 19, 201 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. S. Pelouch, P. E. Powers, and C. L. Tang, Opt. Lett. 17, 1581 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Kasper and K. J. Witte, Opt. Lett. 21, 360 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. de Silvestri, Opt. Commun. 96, 348 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 17, 748 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. E. A. Sahleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Dekorsy, P. Leisching, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8106 (1994), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1994 (3)

1993 (1)

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. de Silvestri, Opt. Commun. 96, 348 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

1991 (1)

Bennhardt, D.

J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Boivin, L.

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bott, K.

J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

Cerullo, G.

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. de Silvestri, Opt. Commun. 96, 348 (1993).
[CrossRef]

de Silvestri, S.

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. de Silvestri, Opt. Commun. 96, 348 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

T. Dekorsy, P. Leisching, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8106 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Eccleston, R.

J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gäbel, K.

K. Gäbel, P. Russbüldt, R. Lebert, P. Loosen, R. Proprawe, and A. Valster, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 157.

Heller, O.

J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Kasper, A.

Kean, P. N.

Knox, W. H.

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, K.

T. Dekorsy, P. Leisching, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8106 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 19, 201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 17, 748 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stingl, Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, and F. Krausz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 66.

Kuhl, J.

J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

T. Dekorsy, P. Leisching, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8106 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Lebert, R.

K. Gäbel, P. Russbüldt, R. Lebert, P. Loosen, R. Proprawe, and A. Valster, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 157.

Leisching, P.

T. Dekorsy, P. Leisching, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8106 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Loosen, P.

K. Gäbel, P. Russbüldt, R. Lebert, P. Loosen, R. Proprawe, and A. Valster, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 157.

Magni, V.

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. de Silvestri, Opt. Commun. 96, 348 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, E. J.

J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pelouch, W. S.

Powers, P. E.

Proprawe, R.

K. Gäbel, P. Russbüldt, R. Lebert, P. Loosen, R. Proprawe, and A. Valster, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 157.

Ramaswamy, M.

Russbüldt, P.

K. Gäbel, P. Russbüldt, R. Lebert, P. Loosen, R. Proprawe, and A. Valster, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 157.

Sahleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Sahleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Sibbet, W.

Smith, G.

J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. E.

Spielmann, Ch.

R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 19, 201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 17, 748 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stingl, Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, and F. Krausz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 66.

Stark, J. B.

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stingl, A.

A. Stingl, Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, and F. Krausz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 66.

Szipöcs, R.

R. Szipöcs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, Opt. Lett. 19, 201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Stingl, Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, and F. Krausz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 66.

Tang, C. L.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Sahleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P.

J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Valster, A.

K. Gäbel, P. Russbüldt, R. Lebert, P. Loosen, R. Proprawe, and A. Valster, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 157.

Witte, K. J.

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Boivin, M. C. Nuss, W. H. Knox, and J. B. Stark, Electron. Lett. 33, 827 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Magni, G. Cerullo, and S. de Silvestri, Opt. Commun. 96, 348 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

T. Dekorsy, P. Leisching, H. Kurz, and K. Köhler, Phys. Rev. B 50, 8106 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

K. Gäbel, P. Russbüldt, R. Lebert, P. Loosen, R. Proprawe, and A. Valster, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 157.

A. Stingl, Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, and F. Krausz, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 9 of 1996 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), p. 66.

B. E. A. Sahleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Kuhl, E. J. Mayer, G. Smith, R. Eccleston, D. Bennhardt, P. Thomas, K. Bott, and O. Heller, in Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors, Vol. 330 of NATO Advanced Institute Series B, R. T. Phillips, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1995), p. 1.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cavity design of the 2-GHz mirror-dispersion-controlled Ti:S ring oscillator: L, f=30 mm lens; F1, F2, chirped focusing mirrors with f=15 mm; M1–M5, flat chirped mirrors; OC, 1% output coupler; M6, external mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferometric autocorrelation of the compressed 23-fs pulse and a fit assuming a sech2-shaped pulse. Inset, corresponding spectrum centered around 782 nm. SHG, second-harmonic generation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-resolved electro-optic signature of coherent BO’s in a semiconductor superlattice measured with a 1-GHz HRR laser for different bias voltages applied to the sample. The BO frequencies obtained from Fourier transformation are indicated by the applied bias voltages.

Equations (1)

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Δτ=3.53D/ΦEP+αΦEP.

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