Abstract

We have developed a novel laser ray-tracing method to measure aberrations in optical systems. It consists of delivering narrow laser pencils (by a laser scanner), recording the spots that are formed on the image plane (with a CCD camera), and computing the position of each centroid. This approach could be considered an experimental (approximate) implementation of standard numerical ray tracing. Several tests and experiments, including a direct comparison with a Hartmann–Shack wave-front sensor, provided highly satisfactory results that confirmed the validity of the method and revealed potential advantages.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992).
  2. J. M. Geary, Introduction to Wavefront Sensors (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, Boston, 1991).
  4. J. G. Sivak and R. O. Kreuzer, Vision Res. 23, 59 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 540 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. H. Hopkins and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Acta 17, 157 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 540 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

J. G. Sivak and R. O. Kreuzer, Vision Res. 23, 59 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

H. H. Hopkins and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Acta 17, 157 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Geary, J. M.

J. M. Geary, Introduction to Wavefront Sensors (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, H. H.

H. H. Hopkins and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Acta 17, 157 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, R. O.

J. G. Sivak and R. O. Kreuzer, Vision Res. 23, 59 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Losada, M. A.

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 540 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992).

Navarro, R.

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 540 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sivak, J. G.

J. G. Sivak and R. O. Kreuzer, Vision Res. 23, 59 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tyson, R. K.

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, Boston, 1991).

Yzuel, M. J.

H. H. Hopkins and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Acta 17, 157 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

H. H. Hopkins and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Acta 17, 157 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

R. Navarro and M. A. Losada, Optom. Vis. Sci. 74, 540 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

J. G. Sivak and R. O. Kreuzer, Vision Res. 23, 59 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1992).

J. M. Geary, Introduction to Wavefront Sensors (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1995).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Tyson, Principles of Adaptive Optics (Academic, Boston, 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dual LRT and H-S setup: The optical system is a high-quality low-aperture collimator (reference) with a removable aberrating plate. In (1) the unexpanded laser beam, deflected by an XY laser scanner, is imaged onto a digital CCD camera after the beam passes through a cube beam splitter, the lens, and the aberrating plate. In (2) the pinhole of a spatial filter is the point object and lenses L1 and L2 form an image of the lens’s pupil plane on a microlens array; the spots formed by the lenslets are imaged onto the CCD by the auxiliary lens, L3, and the CCD objective.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Zernike coefficients of the aberrating plate, obtained with the two methods.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wave-front distortion obtained with the two methods. The increment in wave aberration between adjacent contour lines is 1 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top left, spot diagrams (raw experimental data or geometric aberrations); top right, bottom left, PSF’s computed from wave aberration data; and bottom right, PSF recorded directly on the CCD.

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