Abstract

A simple algorithm is described and demonstrated for the removal of smear from images obtained with a frame transfer CCD camera. The algorithm requires specification of only a single parameter, which is related to the ratio of the single-pixel charge-transfer time of the CCD and the image integration time. The smear parameter is determined experimentally by the requirement that smear-corrected images of a focused laser spot be symmetric.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. C. Holst, CCD Arrays, Camera, and Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), Sec. 3.2.2.
  2. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 131.
  3. J. Herrmann, Adimec Advanced Image Systems B.V., Meerenakkerweg 1, 5625 Eindhoven, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1999).
  4. R. Bakarat and B. H. Sandler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1715 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Bakarat, R.

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, Adimec Advanced Image Systems B.V., Meerenakkerweg 1, 5625 Eindhoven, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1999).

Holst, G. C.

G. C. Holst, CCD Arrays, Camera, and Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), Sec. 3.2.2.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 131.

Sandler, B. H.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 131.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Other (3)

G. C. Holst, CCD Arrays, Camera, and Displays (SPIE Optical Engineering Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1996), Sec. 3.2.2.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991), p. 131.

J. Herrmann, Adimec Advanced Image Systems B.V., Meerenakkerweg 1, 5625 Eindhoven, The Netherlands (personal communication, 1999).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Uncorrected image, displayed with a logarithmic gray scale, of a cw, focused laser spot measured by an Adimec MX12P camera with an integration time of 1.6 ms. Note the stripe that extends downward from the center of the focal spot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of image smear for a single column of CCD pixels, of which only a single pixel is illuminated: (a) charge distribution at the end of the image capture period, (b) charge distribution after one pixel shift, (c) charge distribution after completion of image transfer to the readout buffer, (d) implied image charge distribution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same image as in Fig. 1 but after smear correction with =3.8×10-4.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Dependence of Smear Parameter ϵ and Implied Smear Efficiency Factor η on Camera Integration Time τ

Equations (8)

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N˜jj=k1τIjj=j0otherwise,
ΔNjj=k1ηΔτIjj>j0otherwise.
Nj=j=1nN˜jj+ΔNjj,
Nj=k1τIj+j=1j-1k1ηΔτIj.
Sj=S˜j+j=1j-1S˜j,
=ηΔτ/τ.
S˜j=Sj-j=1j-1S˜j.
S˜j=Sj-Tj-1,  Tj=Tj-1+S˜j.

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