Abstract

The polarization of light scattered into directions out of the plane of incidence by polystyrene latex spheres upon a silicon substrate was measured for p-polarized incident light. The experimental data show good agreement with theoretical predictions for three sizes of spheres. These results demonstrate that the polarization of light scattered by particles can be used to determine the size of particulate contaminants on silicon wafers. Theoretical models, based on successive degrees of approximation, indicate that the mean distance of a particle from the surface is the primary determinant of the scattered light polarization for small out-of-plane scattering angles.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. A. Germer, Appl. Opt. 36, 8798 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. A. Germer, C. C. Asmail, and B. W. Scheer, Opt. Lett. 22, 1284 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. A. Germer and C. C. Asmail, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 1326 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Videen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 483 (1991); J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 844 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, Physica A 137, 209 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. S. Bickel, A. J. Watkins, and G. Videen, Am. J. Phys. 55, 559 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Videen, W. L. Wolfe, and W. S. Bickel, Opt. Eng. 31, 341 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. B. Nahm and W. L. Wolfe, Appl. Opt. 26, 2995 (1987); we do not include their shadow factor.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  10. R. Schmehl, B. M. Nebeker, and E. D. Hirleman, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 3026 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. V. Hering, S. K. Friedlander, J. J. Collins, and L. W. Richards, Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 184 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. D. Kinney, D. Y. H. Pui, G. W. Mulholland, and N. P. Bryner, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 147 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. W. Mulholland, N. P. Bryner, and C. Croarkin, “Measurement of 100 nm NIST SRM 1963 by differential mobility analysis,” J. Aerosol Sci. Technol. (to be published).

1999 (1)

1997 (3)

1992 (1)

G. Videen, W. L. Wolfe, and W. S. Bickel, Opt. Eng. 31, 341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

G. Videen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 483 (1991); J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 844 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Kinney, D. Y. H. Pui, G. W. Mulholland, and N. P. Bryner, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (1)

P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, Physica A 137, 209 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

S. V. Hering, S. K. Friedlander, J. J. Collins, and L. W. Richards, Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 184 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Asmail, C. C.

Bickel, W. S.

G. Videen, W. L. Wolfe, and W. S. Bickel, Opt. Eng. 31, 341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Bickel, A. J. Watkins, and G. Videen, Am. J. Phys. 55, 559 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bobbert, P. A.

P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, Physica A 137, 209 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, F. C.

F. C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Bryner, N. P.

P. D. Kinney, D. Y. H. Pui, G. W. Mulholland, and N. P. Bryner, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Mulholland, N. P. Bryner, and C. Croarkin, “Measurement of 100 nm NIST SRM 1963 by differential mobility analysis,” J. Aerosol Sci. Technol. (to be published).

Collins, J. J.

S. V. Hering, S. K. Friedlander, J. J. Collins, and L. W. Richards, Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 184 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Croarkin, C.

G. W. Mulholland, N. P. Bryner, and C. Croarkin, “Measurement of 100 nm NIST SRM 1963 by differential mobility analysis,” J. Aerosol Sci. Technol. (to be published).

Friedlander, S. K.

S. V. Hering, S. K. Friedlander, J. J. Collins, and L. W. Richards, Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 184 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Germer, T. A.

Hering, S. V.

S. V. Hering, S. K. Friedlander, J. J. Collins, and L. W. Richards, Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 184 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hirleman, E. D.

Huffman, D. R.

F. C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Kinney, P. D.

P. D. Kinney, D. Y. H. Pui, G. W. Mulholland, and N. P. Bryner, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mulholland, G. W.

P. D. Kinney, D. Y. H. Pui, G. W. Mulholland, and N. P. Bryner, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Mulholland, N. P. Bryner, and C. Croarkin, “Measurement of 100 nm NIST SRM 1963 by differential mobility analysis,” J. Aerosol Sci. Technol. (to be published).

Nahm, K. B.

Nebeker, B. M.

Pui, D. Y. H.

P. D. Kinney, D. Y. H. Pui, G. W. Mulholland, and N. P. Bryner, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richards, L. W.

S. V. Hering, S. K. Friedlander, J. J. Collins, and L. W. Richards, Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 184 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Scheer, B. W.

Schmehl, R.

Videen, G.

G. Videen, W. L. Wolfe, and W. S. Bickel, Opt. Eng. 31, 341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Videen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 483 (1991); J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 844 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Bickel, A. J. Watkins, and G. Videen, Am. J. Phys. 55, 559 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vlieger, J.

P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, Physica A 137, 209 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Watkins, A. J.

W. S. Bickel, A. J. Watkins, and G. Videen, Am. J. Phys. 55, 559 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, W. L.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

W. S. Bickel, A. J. Watkins, and G. Videen, Am. J. Phys. 55, 559 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. V. Hering, S. K. Friedlander, J. J. Collins, and L. W. Richards, Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 184 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. (1)

P. D. Kinney, D. Y. H. Pui, G. W. Mulholland, and N. P. Bryner, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 147 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Videen, W. L. Wolfe, and W. S. Bickel, Opt. Eng. 31, 341 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physica A (1)

P. A. Bobbert and J. Vlieger, Physica A 137, 209 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. C. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

G. W. Mulholland, N. P. Bryner, and C. Croarkin, “Measurement of 100 nm NIST SRM 1963 by differential mobility analysis,” J. Aerosol Sci. Technol. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical geometry used in this Letter. (b) Sche-matic polar plot of the intensity distribution f measured by a rotating linear-polarization-sensitive detector defining the BE parameters ηp and PLp=fmax-fmin/fmax+fmin.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b) Results of BE calculations in which three approximations are used for light scattering from two different diameters of PSL spheres above a smooth silicon surface for λ=532 nm at θi=θr=45°. (c) The slope, -Δηp/Δϕrϕr0, as a function of D for three theoretical approximations with experimental results.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

BE parameters for 181.0-nm PSL spheres upon silicon at different incident and scattering angles. The curves represent the predictions of the DDA model. The uncertainties in the data are smaller than or approximately the same size as the symbols.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3 except for three PSL sphere sizes at θi=θr=45°.

Metrics