Abstract

A time-resolved imaging technique for visualizing ultrafast propagation dynamics of intense light pulses in a medium has been demonstrated. The method probes the instantaneous birefringence induced by a pulse in the medium. Through consecutive femtosecond snapshot images of intense femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air, ultrafast temporal changes in the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the optical pulse intensity were clearly seen.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For example, Y. R. Shen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1 (1975)A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

For example, Y. R. Shen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1 (1975)A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, J. C.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Amiranoff, F.

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baton, S. D.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blanchot, N.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Borghesi, M.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chessa, P.

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Clayton, C. E.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dangor, A. E.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Wispelaere, E.

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Dorchies, F.

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, J.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gaillard, R.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, D.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Héron, A.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, C.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laval, G.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mackinnon, A. J.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malka, G.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Malka, V.

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marquès, J. R.

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miquel, J. L.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Modena, A.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mori, W. B.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muggli, P.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Najmudin, Z.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pépin, H.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pukhov, A.

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rousseaux, C.

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

For example, Y. R. Shen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1 (1975)A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tzeng, K. C.

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Willi, O.

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. Fuchs, G. Malka, J. C. Adam, F. Amiranoff, S. D. Baton, N. Blanchot, A. Héron, G. Laval, J. L. Miquel, P. Mora, H. Pépin, and C. Rousseaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1658 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Borghesi, A. J. Mackinnon, R. Gaillard, and O. Willi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5137 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3975 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Clayton, K. C. Tzeng, D. Gordon, P. Muggli, W. B. Mori, C. Joshi, V. Malka, Z. Najmudin, A. Modena, D. Neely, and A. E. Dangor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

For example, P. Chessa, E. De Wispelaere, F. Dorchies, V. Malka, J. R. Marquès, G. Hamoniaux, P. Mora, and F. Amiranoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 552 (1999), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

For example, Y. R. Shen, Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 1 (1975)A. Braun, G. Kohn, X. Liu, D. Du, J. Squier, and G. Mourou, Opt. Lett. 20, 73 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for FTOP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images of a 3.5-mJ pump pulse propagation in air. (a)–(e) Some of the images obtained. The pump pulse propagates from top to bottom in each image, and time proceeds from left to right. The numbers at the bottom represent the time delay from (a). Each image is integrated 10 times, and the background is subtracted. (f) The summed image composed of all the images taken at the 91 respective temporal positions with a 66.7-fs delay step; (g) the emission from the induced plasma.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Summed image of one sequence of the propagation measured at the 91 respective temporal positions with a 66.7-fs delay step. The pump pulse propagates from top to bottom. Each horizontal line is normalized independently. Dashed lines, the vacuum focus cone, which is defined by the trace of the 1/e intensity. The axes show the distance from the vacuum focus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Pump pulse energy dependence of the PD signal. The horizontal and vertical axes correspond to the pump light energy per pulse and the peak height of the PD signal, respectively. The solid curve is calculated from the square function of the energy to approximate the experimental data in the small energy region. Inset, the probe polarization angle dependence of the signal. The horizontal and vertical axes correspond to the angle and the peak height of the PD signal, respectively. The solid curve is calculated from the sinusoidal square function to fit the experimental data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pump polarization angle dependence of the PD signal. The horizontal and vertical axes correspond to the angle between the plumb line and the plane of polarization of the pump beam, and the peak height of the PD signal, respectively. The solid curve is calculated from the fourth power of the cosine function in relation  (3) to fit the experimental data.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn=ϵϵ0δcos2θ+1-δ2sin2θcos2θδsin2θ+11/2-1,
Δnϵ/ϵ0½δcos2θ.
sin2Δn22πλlcos4θ.

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