Abstract

We have observed the nonstationary polarization modulation of a speckle pattern transmitted through a photorefractive crystal under the alternating electric field of a square-wave form. A simple model based on Gaussian-beam propagation in the crystal with the diffusion type of nonlinearity is proposed to explain the main features of the experiment. Application of the phenomenon to noncontact and highly sensitive measurements of a rough surface movement is suggested.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonardt, and J. Klenk, Opt. Commun. 34, 327 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. J. Tiziani and J. Klenk, Appl. Opt. 20, 1467 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Lett. 6, 622 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Opt. Lett. 5, 1239 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. N. A. Korneev and S. I. Stepanov, Optik 91, 61 (1992).
  6. A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, and Y. N. Kulchin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1466 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, and V. V. Shkunov, Speckle-Wave Interactions in Application to Holography and Nonlinear Optics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).
  8. J. Feinberg, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 46 (1982).
  9. S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Asakura and N. Takai, Appl. Phys. 25, 179 (1981).

1998 (1)

A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, and Y. N. Kulchin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1466 (1998).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

N. A. Korneev and S. I. Stepanov, Optik 91, 61 (1992).

1990 (1)

S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Opt. Lett. 5, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1981 (3)

1980 (1)

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonardt, and J. Klenk, Opt. Commun. 34, 327 (1980).
[Crossref]

Apostol, I.

S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Opt. Lett. 5, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

Asakura, T.

T. Asakura and N. Takai, Appl. Phys. 25, 179 (1981).

Feinberg, J.

Huignard, J. P.

Jaaskelainen, T.

A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, and Y. N. Kulchin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1466 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kamshilin, A. A.

A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, and Y. N. Kulchin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1466 (1998).
[Crossref]

Klenk, J.

H. J. Tiziani and J. Klenk, Appl. Opt. 20, 1467 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonardt, and J. Klenk, Opt. Commun. 34, 327 (1980).
[Crossref]

Korneev, N. A.

N. A. Korneev and S. I. Stepanov, Optik 91, 61 (1992).

Kulchin, Y. N.

A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, and Y. N. Kulchin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1466 (1998).
[Crossref]

Leonardt, K.

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonardt, and J. Klenk, Opt. Commun. 34, 327 (1980).
[Crossref]

Mamaev, A. V.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, and V. V. Shkunov, Speckle-Wave Interactions in Application to Holography and Nonlinear Optics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

Marrakchi, A.

Petrov, M. P.

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
[Crossref]

Popa, D.

S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Opt. Lett. 5, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

Shkunov, V. V.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, and V. V. Shkunov, Speckle-Wave Interactions in Application to Holography and Nonlinear Optics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

Sokolov, I. A.

S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Opt. Lett. 5, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, S. I.

N. A. Korneev and S. I. Stepanov, Optik 91, 61 (1992).

S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Opt. Lett. 5, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
[Crossref]

Takai, N.

T. Asakura and N. Takai, Appl. Phys. 25, 179 (1981).

Tiziani, H. J.

H. J. Tiziani and J. Klenk, Appl. Opt. 20, 1467 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonardt, and J. Klenk, Opt. Commun. 34, 327 (1980).
[Crossref]

Trofimov, G. S.

S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Opt. Lett. 5, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vlad, V. I.

S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Opt. Lett. 5, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, and V. V. Shkunov, Speckle-Wave Interactions in Application to Holography and Nonlinear Optics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Asakura and N. Takai, Appl. Phys. 25, 179 (1981).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Kamshilin, T. Jaaskelainen, and Y. N. Kulchin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1466 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. I. Stepanov and M. P. Petrov, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985).
[Crossref]

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonardt, and J. Klenk, Opt. Commun. 34, 327 (1980).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

J. P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Lett. 6, 622 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. I. Stepanov, I. A. Sokolov, G. S. Trofimov, V. I. Vlad, D. Popa, and I. Apostol, Opt. Lett. 5, 1239 (1990).
[Crossref]

Optik (1)

N. A. Korneev and S. I. Stepanov, Optik 91, 61 (1992).

Other (1)

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, A. V. Mamaev, and V. V. Shkunov, Speckle-Wave Interactions in Application to Holography and Nonlinear Optics (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance of the crystal and the analyzer: a, for the positive semicycle of an ac electric field; b, for the negative semicycle; and c, for zero external field. Dashed curves, intensity distribution of the Gaussian beam with w0=20 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the experimental setup: P1, P2, polarizers; L1–L3, lenses; λ/4, a quarter-wave plate; U, applied alternating voltage as a function of time, t.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Copy of the digital oscillograph’s screen. Trace  1 (Ch1), ac high voltage applied to the crystal with an amplitude of 1.25  kV and a frequency of 53  Hz; trace  2 (Ch2), the electrical signal applied to the loudspeaker at a frequency of 1.17  kHz; trace  3 (Ch3), the total light intensity measured by the photodiode. M, time scale 2.00 ms/division.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the photodiode current’s modulation depth on the vibration amplitude of the piezoceramic obtained for the average speckle size of 3.0 μm. Mean incident intensity on the crystal, 90 mW/cm2; vibration frequency, 2  kHz. An ac electric field of 12 kV/cm with a repetition rate of 25  Hz is applied to the crystal.

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