Abstract

We show experimentally and numerically that in high-speed strongly dispersion-managed standard fiber soliton systems nonlinear interactions limit the propagation distance. We present results that show that the effect of these interactions can be significantly reduced by appropriate location of the amplifier within the dispersion map. Using this technique, we have been able to extend the propagation distance of 10Gbit/s  2311 pseudorandom binary sequence soliton data to 16,500  km over standard fiber by use of dispersion compensation. To our knowledge this distance is the farthest transmission over standard fiber without active control ever reported, and it was achieved with the amplifier placed after the dispersion-compensating fiber in a recirculating loop.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. M. Carter, J. M. Jacob, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, Opt. Lett. 22, 513 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 33, 602 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Favre, D. Leguen, and T. George, Electron. Lett. 34, 201 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Harper, F. M. Knox, P. N. Kean, I. Bennion, and N. J. Doran, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.??6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 304.
  7. J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, Electron. Lett. 33, 1726 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, F. M. Knox, and W. Forysiak, Opt. Lett. 21, 1981 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, Opt. Lett. 22, 793 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Bernston, Electron. Lett. 34, 481 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Matsumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 373 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 273 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

F. Favre, D. Leguen, and T. George, Electron. Lett. 34, 201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Matsumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 33, 602 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Bernston, Electron. Lett. 34, 481 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, Electron. Lett. 33, 1726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter, J. M. Jacob, C. R. Menyuk, E. A. Golovchenko, and A. N. Pilipetskii, Opt. Lett. 22, 513 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yu, E. A. Golovchenko, A. N. Pilipetskii, and C. R. Menyuk, Opt. Lett. 22, 793 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, F. M. Knox, and W. Forysiak, Opt. Lett. 21, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Harper, F. M. Knox, P. N. Kean, I. Bennion, and N. J. Doran, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.??6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 304.

Bernston, A.

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Bernston, Electron. Lett. 34, 481 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carter, G. M.

Doran, N. J.

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, Electron. Lett. 33, 1726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Bernston, Electron. Lett. 34, 481 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, F. M. Knox, and W. Forysiak, Opt. Lett. 21, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Harper, F. M. Knox, P. N. Kean, I. Bennion, and N. J. Doran, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.??6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 304.

Favre, F.

F. Favre, D. Leguen, and T. George, Electron. Lett. 34, 201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Forysiak, W.

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, Electron. Lett. 33, 1726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Bernston, Electron. Lett. 34, 481 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, F. M. Knox, and W. Forysiak, Opt. Lett. 21, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

George, T.

F. Favre, D. Leguen, and T. George, Electron. Lett. 34, 201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, E. A.

Harper, P.

P. Harper, F. M. Knox, P. N. Kean, I. Bennion, and N. J. Doran, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.??6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 304.

Jacob, J. M.

Kean, P. N.

P. Harper, F. M. Knox, P. N. Kean, I. Bennion, and N. J. Doran, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.??6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 304.

Knox, F. M.

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, Electron. Lett. 33, 1726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, F. M. Knox, and W. Forysiak, Opt. Lett. 21, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Harper, F. M. Knox, P. N. Kean, I. Bennion, and N. J. Doran, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.??6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 304.

Kubota, H.

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 33, 602 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leguen, D.

F. Favre, D. Leguen, and T. George, Electron. Lett. 34, 201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Matsumoto, M.

M. Matsumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

Nakazawa, M.

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 33, 602 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nijhof, J. H. B.

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, Electron. Lett. 33, 1726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Bernston, Electron. Lett. 34, 481 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pilipetskii, A. N.

Sahara, A.

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 33, 602 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N. J.

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, N. J. Doran, F. M. Knox, and W. Forysiak, Opt. Lett. 21, 1981 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, E.

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 33, 602 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 33, 602 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Electron. Lett. (6)

N. J. Smith, F. M. Knox, N. J. Doran, K. J. Blow, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 32, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Smith, W. Forysiak, and N. J. Doran, Electron. Lett. 32, 2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Yamada, H. Kubota, T. Yamamoto, A. Sahara, and M. Nakazawa, Electron. Lett. 33, 602 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Favre, D. Leguen, and T. George, Electron. Lett. 34, 201 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and F. M. Knox, Electron. Lett. 33, 1726 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. B. Nijhof, N. J. Doran, W. Forysiak, and A. Bernston, Electron. Lett. 34, 481 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Matsumoto, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 373 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

D. Marcuse, J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 273 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

P. Harper, F. M. Knox, P. N. Kean, I. Bennion, and N. J. Doran, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol.??6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 304.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. The amplifier and the filter were positioned at point (a), (b), or (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Log BER versus distance for the three different amplifier positions: (a) within the SF span, (b) before the DCF, (c) after the DCF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Numerical simulation results showing the collapse distance for different amplifier positions. Experimental amplifier positions (a), (b), and (c) are indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sampled waveforms at a distance of 4.2  Mm for amplifier position (a) with patterns (I) and (II).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sampled waveforms taken after 3  Mm at two points in the dispersion map: (a) transform-limited point, (b) between the SF and the DCF.

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