Abstract

We report what is believed to be the first observation of permanent photoreduction of Eu3+ to Eu2+ in transparent and colorless Eu3+-doped fluorozirconate glass at room temperature, using an infrared femtosecond laser. Difference absorption and electron-spin-resonance spectra of the glass before and after laser irradiation showed that a portion of the Eu3+ ions in the focused part of the laser inside the glass were reduced to Eu2+ ions after laser irradiation. It is suggested that Eu3+ ions act as electron-trapping centers, whereas active sites in the glass matrix act as hole-trapping centers, leading to the formation of Eu2+ ions. The observed phenomenon is inferred to be useful in the fabrication of optical memory devices with high storage density and waveguide-type micro-optical devices.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Tamai and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 191, 189 (1992).
  2. M. Yanagimachi, N. Tamai, and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 115 (1993).
  3. J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 353 (1992).
  4. S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8801 (1992).
  5. L. R. Khundkar and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 231 (1990).
  6. K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1763 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2263 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Kanou, in Handbook of Phosphors, Keikoutaidogakukai, ed. (Ohm, Tokyo, 1987), pp. 110–125 in Japanese.
  11. J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 759 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  13. D. L. Griscom and E. J. Friebele, in Fluoride Glass, A. E. Comyns, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 307–350.
  14. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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1998

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, K. Gabel, S. V. Garnov, L. B. Glebov, S. Grantham, M. Richardson, and M. J. Soileau, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 193 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 759 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

M. Yanagimachi, N. Tamai, and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 115 (1993).

1992

J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 353 (1992).

S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8801 (1992).

N. Tamai and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 191, 189 (1992).

1990

L. R. Khundkar and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 231 (1990).

Banares, L.

J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 353 (1992).

S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8801 (1992).

Callan, J. P.

Cashion, J. D.

D. R. MacFarlane, P. J. Newman, J. D. Cashion, and A. Edgar, in Extended Abstracts of the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide and New Optical Glasses (Sheffield University, Sheffield, UK, 1998), pp. 33–38.

Edgar, A.

D. R. MacFarlane, P. J. Newman, J. D. Cashion, and A. Edgar, in Extended Abstracts of the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide and New Optical Glasses (Sheffield University, Sheffield, UK, 1998), pp. 33–38.

Efimov, O. M.

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, R. J.

Friebele, E. J.

D. L. Griscom and E. J. Friebele, in Fluoride Glass, A. E. Comyns, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 307–350.

Gabel, K.

Garnov, S. V.

Glebov, L. B.

Glezer, E. N.

Grantham, S.

Griscom, D. L.

D. L. Griscom and E. J. Friebele, in Fluoride Glass, A. E. Comyns, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 307–350.

Her, T.-H.

Herek, J. L.

J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 353 (1992).

Hirao, K.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 759 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Inouye, H.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iwabuchi, Y.

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 759 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kanou, T.

T. Kanou, in Handbook of Phosphors, Keikoutaidogakukai, ed. (Ohm, Tokyo, 1987), pp. 110–125 in Japanese.

Khundkar, L. R.

L. R. Khundkar and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 231 (1990).

Kondo, Y.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

MacFarlane, D. R.

D. R. MacFarlane, P. J. Newman, J. D. Cashion, and A. Edgar, in Extended Abstracts of the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide and New Optical Glasses (Sheffield University, Sheffield, UK, 1998), pp. 33–38.

Masuhara, H.

M. Yanagimachi, N. Tamai, and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 115 (1993).

N. Tamai and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 191, 189 (1992).

Mazur, E.

Milosavljevic, M.

Mitsuyu, T.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newman, P. J.

D. R. MacFarlane, P. J. Newman, J. D. Cashion, and A. Edgar, in Extended Abstracts of the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide and New Optical Glasses (Sheffield University, Sheffield, UK, 1998), pp. 33–38.

Pedersen, S.

S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8801 (1992).

J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 353 (1992).

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 759 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizugawa, Y.

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 759 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soileau, M. J.

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, T.

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tamai, N.

M. Yanagimachi, N. Tamai, and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 115 (1993).

N. Tamai and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 191, 189 (1992).

Yanagimachi, M.

M. Yanagimachi, N. Tamai, and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 115 (1993).

Zewail, A. H.

J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 353 (1992).

S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8801 (1992).

L. R. Khundkar and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 231 (1990).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Miura, J. Qiu, H. Inouye, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3329 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1763 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, Y. Shimizugawa, Y. Iwabuchi, and K. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 759 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

N. Tamai and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 191, 189 (1992).

M. Yanagimachi, N. Tamai, and H. Masuhara, Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 115 (1993).

J. Chem. Phys.

J. L. Herek, S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 353 (1992).

S. Pedersen, L. Banares, and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 8801 (1992).

L. R. Khundkar and A. H. Zewail, J. Chem. Phys. 92, 231 (1990).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Kondo, T. Suzuki, H. Inouye, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, L94 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2263 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

D. R. MacFarlane, P. J. Newman, J. D. Cashion, and A. Edgar, in Extended Abstracts of the 11th International Symposium on Non-Oxide and New Optical Glasses (Sheffield University, Sheffield, UK, 1998), pp. 33–38.

D. L. Griscom and E. J. Friebele, in Fluoride Glass, A. E. Comyns, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 307–350.

T. Kanou, in Handbook of Phosphors, Keikoutaidogakukai, ed. (Ohm, Tokyo, 1987), pp. 110–125 in Japanese.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of Eu3+-doped fluorozirconate glass (curve a) before and (curve b) immediately after femtosecond laser irradiation. The times shown in the figure are the duration after the removal of the femtosecond laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Curve a, difference absorption spectrum of Eu3+-doped fluorozirconate glass before and after the femtosecond laser irradiation, together with (curve b) the absorption spectrum of a Eu2+-doped fluoroaluminate glass sample fabricated in a reducing atmosphere.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

ESR spectra of Eu3+-doped fluorozirconate glass (curve a) before and (curve b) after the femtosecond laser irradiation, together with (curve c) the spectrum of a Eu2+-doped fluoroaluminate glass sample fabricated in a reducing atmosphere.

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