Abstract

We present the operational principles and results of a temporal imaging system, configured as a time microscope, that achieves 103× magnification of waveforms with 300-fs resolution and a 5.7-ps field of view. The quadratic-phase time-lens element is realized by upconversion of the dispersed input waveform with a linearly chirped 5-THz bandwidth pump. The system allows expansion of ultrafast optical waveforms to a time scale that is directly accessible with slower conventional technology, in real time, on a single-shot basis.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Tournois, J-L. Verner, and G. Bienvenu, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 267, 375 (1968).
  2. W. J. Caputi, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-7, 269 (1971).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. A. Giormaine, M. A. Duguay, and J. W. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 252 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. R. Grischowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 566 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, and D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. K. Wigmore and D. R. Grischowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 310 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. B. H. Kolner, C. V. Bennett, and R. P. Scott, Proc. SPIE 2116, 245 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (6)

B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Bennett, R. P. Scott, and B. H. Kolner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2513 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 827 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kolner, C. V. Bennett, and R. P. Scott, Proc. SPIE 2116, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kolner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. T. Kauffman, A. A. Godil, W. C. Banyai, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 29, 268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. P. Dijaili, A. Dienes, and J. S. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1158 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

B. H. Kolner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1122 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1978 (1)

J. K. Wigmore and D. R. Grischowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 310 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, and D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

D. R. Grischowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

W. J. Caputi, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-7, 269 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. B. Treacy, IEEE J. Quantum QE-5, 454 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

P. Tournois, J-L. Verner, and G. Bienvenu, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 267, 375 (1968).

J. A. Giormaine, M. A. Duguay, and J. W. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 252 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Arons, E.

Auld, B. A.

A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 827 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Banyai, W. C.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Kauffman, A. A. Godil, W. C. Banyai, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 29, 268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. V.

B. H. Kolner, C. V. Bennett, and R. P. Scott, Proc. SPIE 2116, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Bennett, R. P. Scott, and B. H. Kolner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2513 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bienvenu, G.

P. Tournois, J-L. Verner, and G. Bienvenu, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 267, 375 (1968).

Bjorkholm, J. E.

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, and D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 827 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Kauffman, A. A. Godil, W. C. Banyai, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 29, 268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Caputi, W. J.

W. J. Caputi, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-7, 269 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

S. P. Dijaili, A. Dienes, and J. S. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1158 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dijaili, S. P.

S. P. Dijaili, A. Dienes, and J. S. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1158 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

J. A. Giormaine, M. A. Duguay, and J. W. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 252 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Foing, J.-P.

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

Giormaine, J. A.

J. A. Giormaine, M. A. Duguay, and J. W. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 252 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Godil, A. A.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 827 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Kauffman, A. A. Godil, W. C. Banyai, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 29, 268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Grischowsky, D. R.

J. K. Wigmore and D. R. Grischowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 310 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Grischowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. W.

J. A. Giormaine, M. A. Duguay, and J. W. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 252 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kauffman, M. T.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Kauffman, A. A. Godil, W. C. Banyai, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 29, 268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

B. H. Kolner, C. V. Bennett, and R. P. Scott, Proc. SPIE 2116, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Bennett, R. P. Scott, and B. H. Kolner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2513 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kolner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3229 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kolner and M. Nazarathy, Opt. Lett. 14, 630 (1989) erratum, 15, 655 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Kolner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1122 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E.

Leith, E. N.

Likforman, J.-P.

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, O. E.

Migus, A.

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Naulleau, P.

Nazarathy, M.

Pearson, D. B.

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, and D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

B. H. Kolner, C. V. Bennett, and R. P. Scott, Proc. SPIE 2116, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Bennett, R. P. Scott, and B. H. Kolner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2513 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. S.

S. P. Dijaili, A. Dienes, and J. S. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1158 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tien, A. C.

Tournois, P.

P. Tournois, J-L. Verner, and G. Bienvenu, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 267, 375 (1968).

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, IEEE J. Quantum QE-5, 454 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Turner, E. H.

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, and D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Verner, J-L.

P. Tournois, J-L. Verner, and G. Bienvenu, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 267, 375 (1968).

Wagner, R.

Wigmore, J. K.

J. K. Wigmore and D. R. Grischowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 310 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. V. Bennett, R. P. Scott, and B. H. Kolner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2513 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Grischowsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 566 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bjorkholm, E. H. Turner, and D. B. Pearson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 564 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Kolner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 1122 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) (1)

P. Tournois, J-L. Verner, and G. Bienvenu, C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 267, 375 (1968).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. T. Kauffman, A. A. Godil, W. C. Banyai, and D. M. Bloom, Electron. Lett. 29, 268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum (1)

E. B. Treacy, IEEE J. Quantum QE-5, 454 (1969).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (6)

B. H. Kolner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1951 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Dijaili, A. Dienes, and J. S. Smith, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1158 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Giormaine, M. A. Duguay, and J. W. Hansen, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-4, 252 (1968).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Godil, B. A. Auld, and D. M. Bloom, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 827 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Wigmore and D. R. Grischowsky, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 310 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Foing, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and A. Migus, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2285 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. (1)

W. J. Caputi, IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. AES-7, 269 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. H. Kolner, C. V. Bennett, and R. P. Scott, Proc. SPIE 2116, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal ray diagram of a two-pulse sequence with ϕ1, ϕf>0, ϕ2<0, and M=+3. Physical propagation distance ξ is increasing from left to right.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Upconversion time microscope with positive magnification. The input and output dispersions are constructed with grating-pair dispersive delay lines. The time lens is produced by sum-frequency generation with a chirped optical pump pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal images measured with 667-fs steps in the input delay of pulse #2, Δτin. Each output delay, Δτout, changed by 68.7  ps, indicating a magnification M=+103.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output spectra corresponding to the series of temporal images shown in Fig.  3. The frequency shift to delayed pulse #2 is the temporal analog of steering a beam with a lens by changing the beam’s displacement from the lens axis.

Equations (2)

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1/ϕ1+1/ϕ2=1/ϕf.
M=-ϕ2/ϕ1.

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