Abstract

We demonstrate a simple method for efficient coupling of standard single-mode optical fibers to a high-Q optical microsphere cavity. Phase-matched excitation of whispering-gallery modes is provided by an angle-polished fiber tip in which the core-guided wave undergoes total internal reflection. In the experimental setup, which included a microsphere with both an input and an output coupler, the total fiber-to-fiber transmission at resonance reached 23% (total insertion loss, 6.3  dB), with loaded quality factor Q3×107 and unloaded Q1.2×108 at 1550  nm. A simple pigtailing method for microspheres permits their wider use in fiber optics and photonics devices.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998 (1)

F. Treussart, V. S. Ilchenko, J.-F. Roch, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (3)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994)J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 37, 393 (1989)L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993) H. Mabuchi and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

Birks, T. A.

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 37, 393 (1989)L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993) H. Mabuchi and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byer, R.

Cheung, G.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 21, 453 (1996)D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 23, 247 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994)J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 37, 393 (1989)L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993) H. Mabuchi and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffel, G.

Hare, J.

F. Treussart, V. S. Ilchenko, J.-F. Roch, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

F. Treussart, V. S. Ilchenko, J.-F. Roch, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

F. Treussart, V. S. Ilchenko, J.-F. Roch, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Lett. 21, 453 (1996)D. W. Vernooy, V. S. Ilchenko, H. Mabuchi, E. W. Streed, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 23, 247 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994)J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 37, 393 (1989)L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993) H. Mabuchi and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, F.

Jeunhomme, L. B.

L. B. Jeunhomme, Single-Mode Fiber Optics (Marcel-Dekker, New York, 1983).

Knight, J. C.

Lam, C. C.

Lefevre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

F. Treussart, V. S. Ilchenko, J.-F. Roch, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leung, P. T.

Maleki, L.

Raimond, J.-M.

F. Treussart, V. S. Ilchenko, J.-F. Roch, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roch, J.-F.

F. Treussart, V. S. Ilchenko, J.-F. Roch, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schiller, S.

Serpenguezel, A.

Treussart, F.

F. Treussart, V. S. Ilchenko, J.-F. Roch, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

Young, K.

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

F. Treussart, V. S. Ilchenko, J.-F. Roch, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Eur. Phys. J. D 1, 235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994)J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, Phys. Lett. A 37, 393 (1989)L. Collot, V. Lefevre-Seguin, M. Brune, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993) H. Mabuchi and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 19, 749 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefevre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Product information sheet PI1036, Corning, Inc., Corning, N.Y. 14831, 1998.

L. B. Jeunhomme, Single-Mode Fiber Optics (Marcel-Dekker, New York, 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Angle-polished fiber coupler for WG modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective index for WG mode azimuthal propagation (based on the mode-frequency approximation of Lam et al. 10)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Microsphere with an angle-polished fiber coupler. The remaining cleave surface facilitates clear output of the reflected core mode. (b) Microsphere with two identical couplers. In both images the dark areas in the background are out-of-focus images of silica rods supporting the microspheres.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of single-coupler efficiency for the assembly in Fig.  3(a). The energy-coupling efficiency at resonance is greater than 60% (single-coupler insertion loss, 2.1 dB), Qload=3.2×106 at 1310  nm, and the sphere diameter is 470 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission of the microsphere + two couplers assembly [Fig.  3(b)]. The input power is 7.5–8.3  mW, the maximum transmission at resonance is 23.5% (fiber-to-fiber loss, 6.3  dB), Qload>3×107 at 1550  nm, and the sphere diameter is 405 μm. Unloaded Q01.2×108.

Equations (1)

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ωlq=ncaν+2-1/3αqν1/3-Pn2-11/2+3102-2/3×αq2ν-1/3-2-1/3Pn2-2P2/3n2-13/2αqν-2/3+Oν-1.

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