Abstract

The holographic recording characteristics of a photopolymer–nanoporous-glass composite are reported. An M/# of 3.2 is measured in this medium by angle multiplexing of a series of plane-wave holograms. In addition, the dimensional stability of the material is demonstrated by the negligible Bragg detuning of a set of angle-multiplexed holograms recorded with varying grating tilt angles and by the relative insensitivity of the detuning to changes in temperature.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, and G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Opt. 15, 95 (1976)B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Arm-strong, D. M. T. Chan, and C. I. Weathers, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19 (1991)B. M. Monroe, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25 (1991)R. T. Ingwall and H. L. Fielding, Proc. SPIE 523, 306 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. Sukhanov, Proc. SPIE 1238, 226 (1989)S. A. Kuchinskii, V. I. Sukhanov, and M. V. Khazova, Opt. Spectrosc. 72, 383 (1992)Laser Phys. 3, 1114 (1993)V. I. Sukhanov, Opt. Appl. 24, 13 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. H. Mok, G. W. Burr, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Lett. 21, 896 (1996)A. Pu, K. Curtis, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Eng. 35, 2824 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature (London) 393, 665 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature (London) 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, M. Schnoes, T. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1989 (1)

V. Sukhanov, Proc. SPIE 1238, 226 (1989)S. A. Kuchinskii, V. I. Sukhanov, and M. V. Khazova, Opt. Spectrosc. 72, 383 (1992)Laser Phys. 3, 1114 (1993)V. I. Sukhanov, Opt. Appl. 24, 13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, and G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Opt. 15, 95 (1976)B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Arm-strong, D. M. T. Chan, and C. I. Weathers, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19 (1991)B. M. Monroe, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25 (1991)R. T. Ingwall and H. L. Fielding, Proc. SPIE 523, 306 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature (London) 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aumiller, G. D.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, and G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Opt. 15, 95 (1976)B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Arm-strong, D. M. T. Chan, and C. I. Weathers, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19 (1991)B. M. Monroe, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25 (1991)R. T. Ingwall and H. L. Fielding, Proc. SPIE 523, 306 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bair, H.

L. Dhar, M. Schnoes, T. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blyler, L.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, C.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, M. Schnoes, T. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burr, G. W.

Buse, K.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature (London) 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, H. J.

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chandross, E. A.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, and G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Opt. 15, 95 (1976)B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Arm-strong, D. M. T. Chan, and C. I. Weathers, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19 (1991)B. M. Monroe, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25 (1991)R. T. Ingwall and H. L. Fielding, Proc. SPIE 523, 306 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, L.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, M. Schnoes, T. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, J.-M.

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harris, A.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hemmer, P.

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Korzinin, Y. L.

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ludman, J. E.

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mok, F. H.

Psaltis, D.

Reinhand, N. O.

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Riccobono, J. R.

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, F.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, M. Schnoes, T. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schnoes, M.

L. Dhar, M. Schnoes, T. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, I. V.

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shahriar, S. M.

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sukhanov, V.

V. Sukhanov, Proc. SPIE 1238, 226 (1989)S. A. Kuchinskii, V. I. Sukhanov, and M. V. Khazova, Opt. Spectrosc. 72, 383 (1992)Laser Phys. 3, 1114 (1993)V. I. Sukhanov, Opt. Appl. 24, 13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tomlinson, W. J.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, and G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Opt. 15, 95 (1976)B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Arm-strong, D. M. T. Chan, and C. I. Weathers, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19 (1991)B. M. Monroe, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25 (1991)R. T. Ingwall and H. L. Fielding, Proc. SPIE 523, 306 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, and G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Opt. 15, 95 (1976)B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Arm-strong, D. M. T. Chan, and C. I. Weathers, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19 (1991)B. M. Monroe, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25 (1991)R. T. Ingwall and H. L. Fielding, Proc. SPIE 523, 306 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, T.

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Dhar, M. Schnoes, T. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

W. J. Tomlinson, E. A. Chandross, H. P. Weber, and G. D. Aumiller, Appl. Opt. 15, 95 (1976)B. M. Monroe, W. K. Smothers, D. E. Keys, R. R. Krebs, D. J. Mickish, A. F. Harrington, S. R. Schicker, M. K. Arm-strong, D. M. T. Chan, and C. I. Weathers, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 19 (1991)B. M. Monroe, J. Imaging Sci. 35, 25 (1991)R. T. Ingwall and H. L. Fielding, Proc. SPIE 523, 306 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Dhar, M. Schnoes, T. Wysocki, H. Bair, M. Schilling, and C. Boyd, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1337 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

M. Schilling, V. Colvin, L. Dhar, A. Harris, F. Schilling, H. Katz, T. Wysocki, A. Hale, L. Blyler, and C. Boyd, Chem. Mater. 11, 247 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature (London) 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. E. Ludman, J. R. Riccobono, N. O. Reinhand, I. V. Semenova, Y. L. Korzinin, S. M. Shahriar, H. J. Caulfield, J.-M. Fournier, and P. Hemmer, Opt. Eng. 36, 1700 (1997)L. B. Glebov, K. V. Dukel’skii, S. K. Evstrop’ev, N. V. Nikonorov, G. T. Petrovskii, and V. S. Shashkin, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 16, 445 (1990)J.-L. R. Nogues and W. V. Moreshead, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 121, 136 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

V. Sukhanov, Proc. SPIE 1238, 226 (1989)S. A. Kuchinskii, V. I. Sukhanov, and M. V. Khazova, Opt. Spectrosc. 72, 383 (1992)Laser Phys. 3, 1114 (1993)V. I. Sukhanov, Opt. Appl. 24, 13 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a, Angular scan of the diffraction efficiencies of 26 angle-multiplexed volume holograms. The holograms were recorded at an angular separation of 2° from a sample angle of -25° to 25°. b, Angular selectivity curve of one of the holograms from the 26 shown in a. The filled circles represent the data, and the solid curve is a fit to the data utilizing the results of a coupled-wave treatment of volume phase holograms. The effective thickness of the hologram obtained from the fit to 1.5  mm. c, Cumulative M/# as a function of total exposure time. M# is the sum of the square root of the diffraction efficiencies of the holograms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Angular deviations of the readout angle of the 15 angle-multiplexed holograms used to measure the effective dimensional stability of the filled porous-glass system and the calculated deviations expected from systems that undergo changes in thickness upon recording (solid and dashed curves). The angular deviations represent the differences between the sample angles at which each hologram was recorded and the sample angle at which each hologram exhibited its maximum diffraction efficiency after the sample was completely flood cured. The solid (dashed) curve represents the angular deviations expected from a polymer system8 with 0.3% (0.1%) dimensional change (occuring only in the out-of-plane direction).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the effects of changes in tempera-ture on the angular deviations in a, the photopolymer-filled nanoporous glass (, 27.1 °C; , 28.7 °C; , 30.7 °C; , 34.5 °C; , 38.7 °C; , 41.7 °C; , 46.8 °C; and , 54.1 °C) and b, a typical all-polymer system8 (, 27.3 °C; , 28.6 °C; , 29.6 °C; , 32.1 °C; , 36.6 °C; , 40.0 °C; , 43.1 °C).

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