Abstract

We propose a novel method that, for the first time to our knowledge, makes it possible to tailor the spectral response of an input grating coupler. This method is based on the idea of computer-generated waveguide holography. Grating couplers with different spectral responses have been designed and fabricated, and experimental results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. F. Levine, G. Sarusi, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, and R. E. Leibenguth, in NATO Advanced Workshop on Quantum Well Intersubband Transition Physics and Devices, H. C. Levine, B. F. Levine, and J. Y. Anderson, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), p. 1–12.
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Y. Andersson, L. Lundqvist, and Z. F. Paska, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2264 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Sarusi, B. F. Levine, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, R. E. Leibenguth, and J. Y. Andersson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4989 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Xing and H. C. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 1214 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Li, P. Modh, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, C. Silf-venius, and G. Landgren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1376 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).
  8. H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wyrowski, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Li, P. Modh, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, C. Silf-venius, and G. Landgren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wyrowski, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Xing and H. C. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 1214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Sarusi, B. F. Levine, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, R. E. Leibenguth, and J. Y. Andersson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Y. Andersson, L. Lundqvist, and Z. F. Paska, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2264 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Aagedal, H.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wyrowski, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, J. Y.

G. Sarusi, B. F. Levine, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, R. E. Leibenguth, and J. Y. Andersson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Andersson, L. Lundqvist, and Z. F. Paska, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2264 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bandara, K. M. S.

G. Sarusi, B. F. Levine, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, R. E. Leibenguth, and J. Y. Andersson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, G. Sarusi, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, and R. E. Leibenguth, in NATO Advanced Workshop on Quantum Well Intersubband Transition Physics and Devices, H. C. Levine, B. F. Levine, and J. Y. Anderson, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), p. 1–12.
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson, J.

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beth, T.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wyrowski, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Hagberg, M.

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kristjánsson, S.

M. Li, P. Modh, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, C. Silf-venius, and G. Landgren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Landgren, G.

M. Li, P. Modh, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, C. Silf-venius, and G. Landgren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

M. Li, P. Modh, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, C. Silf-venius, and G. Landgren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

G. Sarusi, B. F. Levine, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, R. E. Leibenguth, and J. Y. Andersson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, G. Sarusi, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, and R. E. Leibenguth, in NATO Advanced Workshop on Quantum Well Intersubband Transition Physics and Devices, H. C. Levine, B. F. Levine, and J. Y. Anderson, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), p. 1–12.
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. F.

G. Sarusi, B. F. Levine, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, R. E. Leibenguth, and J. Y. Andersson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, G. Sarusi, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, and R. E. Leibenguth, in NATO Advanced Workshop on Quantum Well Intersubband Transition Physics and Devices, H. C. Levine, B. F. Levine, and J. Y. Anderson, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), p. 1–12.
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, P. Modh, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, C. Silf-venius, and G. Landgren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

B. Xing and H. C. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 1214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lundqvist, L.

J. Y. Andersson, L. Lundqvist, and Z. F. Paska, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2264 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Modh, P.

M. Li, P. Modh, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, C. Silf-venius, and G. Landgren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paska, Z. F.

J. Y. Andersson, L. Lundqvist, and Z. F. Paska, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2264 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

G. Sarusi, B. F. Levine, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, R. E. Leibenguth, and J. Y. Andersson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, G. Sarusi, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, and R. E. Leibenguth, in NATO Advanced Workshop on Quantum Well Intersubband Transition Physics and Devices, H. C. Levine, B. F. Levine, and J. Y. Anderson, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), p. 1–12.
[CrossRef]

Sarusi, G.

G. Sarusi, B. F. Levine, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, R. E. Leibenguth, and J. Y. Andersson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine, G. Sarusi, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, and R. E. Leibenguth, in NATO Advanced Workshop on Quantum Well Intersubband Transition Physics and Devices, H. C. Levine, B. F. Levine, and J. Y. Anderson, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), p. 1–12.
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Schmid, M.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wyrowski, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Silf-venius, C.

M. Li, P. Modh, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, C. Silf-venius, and G. Landgren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suhara, T.

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teiwes, S.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wyrowski, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wyrowski, F.

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wyrowski, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xing, B.

B. Xing and H. C. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 1214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Y. Andersson, L. Lundqvist, and Z. F. Paska, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2264 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Li, J. Bengtsson, M. Hagberg, A. Larsson, and T. Suhara, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Li, P. Modh, S. Kristjánsson, A. Larsson, C. Silf-venius, and G. Landgren, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1376 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. Sarusi, B. F. Levine, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, R. E. Leibenguth, and J. Y. Andersson, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 4989 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Xing and H. C. Liu, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 1214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. Aagedal, M. Schmid, T. Beth, S. Teiwes, and F. Wyrowski, J. Mod. Opt. 43, 1409 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik 35, 237 (1972).

Other (1)

B. F. Levine, G. Sarusi, S. J. Pearton, K. M. S. Bandara, and R. E. Leibenguth, in NATO Advanced Workshop on Quantum Well Intersubband Transition Physics and Devices, H. C. Levine, B. F. Levine, and J. Y. Anderson, eds. (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1994), p. 1–12.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic comparison of different types of grating coupler: (a) uniform, (b) random, and (c) tailored gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results on grating couplers designed with different spectral responses: (a) uniform grating, (b) tailored grating with a single passband of 5  nm, (c) tai-lored grating with a single passband of 20  nm, and (d) tai-lored grating with two distinctive passbands separated by 35  nm, where each passband has a bandwidth of 5  nm.

Equations (1)

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nμsinθ=neff+mλ/Λ,

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