Abstract

We have experimentally demonstrated for what is believed to be the first time a method for sensing wave-front tilt with a laser guide star (LGS). The tilt components of wave fronts were measured synchronously from the LGS by use of a telescope with a 0.75-m effective aperture and from the star Polaris by use of a 1.5-m telescope. The Rayleigh guide star was formed at an altitude of 6  km and at a corresponding range of 10.5  km by projection of a focused beam at Polaris from the full aperture at the 1.5-m telescope. Both telescope mounts were unpowered and bolted in place, allowing us to reduce substantially the telescope vibration. The maximum value of the measured cross-correlation coefficient between the tilt for Polaris and the LGS is 0.71. The variations of the measured cross-correlation coefficient in the range from 0.22 to 0.71 are caused by turbulence at altitudes above 6  km, which was not sampled by the laser beacon but affected tilt for Polaris, the cone effect for turbulence below 6  km, residual mount jitter of the telescopes, and variations of the signal/noise ratio. The results support our concept of sensing atmospheric tilt by observing a LGS with an auxiliary telescope and indicate that this method is a possible solution for the tip–tilt problem.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  11. M. S. Belen’kii, Final Report for Summer Research Extension Program (U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C., 1996).

1998

1997

M. S. Belen’kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, Proc. SPIE 3126, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 3126, 101 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Esposito, R. Riccardi, and R. Ragazzoni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1916 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 2828, 280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 2956, 206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, Astron. Astrophys. 305, L13 (1996).

1995

R. Foy, A. Migus, G. Grynber, P. R. McCullogh, and M. Tallon, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569 (1995).

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 2471, 289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and E. Marchetti, Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76 (1995).

Belen’kii, M. S.

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 3126, 101 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, Proc. SPIE 3126, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 2828, 280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 2956, 206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 2471, 289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Final Report for Summer Research Extension Program (U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C., 1996).

Brown, J. M.

M. S. Belen’kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, Proc. SPIE 3126, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esposito, S.

S. Esposito, R. Riccardi, and R. Ragazzoni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1916 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and E. Marchetti, Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76 (1995).

Foy, R.

R. Foy, A. Migus, G. Grynber, P. R. McCullogh, and M. Tallon, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569 (1995).

Fugate, R. Q.

M. S. Belen’kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, Proc. SPIE 3126, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grynber, G.

R. Foy, A. Migus, G. Grynber, P. R. McCullogh, and M. Tallon, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569 (1995).

Karis, S. J.

M. S. Belen’kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, Proc. SPIE 3126, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, E.

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and E. Marchetti, Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76 (1995).

McCullogh, P. R.

R. Foy, A. Migus, G. Grynber, P. R. McCullogh, and M. Tallon, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569 (1995).

Migus, A.

R. Foy, A. Migus, G. Grynber, P. R. McCullogh, and M. Tallon, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569 (1995).

Ragazzoni, R.

R. Ragazzoni, Astron. Astrophys. 305, L13 (1996).

S. Esposito, R. Riccardi, and R. Ragazzoni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1916 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and E. Marchetti, Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76 (1995).

Riccardi, R.

Roggeman, M. C.

Tallon, M.

R. Foy, A. Migus, G. Grynber, P. R. McCullogh, and M. Tallon, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569 (1995).

Welsh, B. M.

Whiteley, M. R.

Astron. Astrophys.

R. Ragazzoni, Astron. Astrophys. 305, L13 (1996).

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.

R. Foy, A. Migus, G. Grynber, P. R. McCullogh, and M. Tallon, Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 111, 569 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc.

R. Ragazzoni, S. Esposito, and E. Marchetti, Mon. Notes R. Astron. Soc. 276, L76 (1995).

Proc. SPIE

M. S. Belen’kii, S. J. Karis, J. M. Brown, and R. Q. Fugate, Proc. SPIE 3126, 113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 2471, 289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 2828, 280 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 2956, 206 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Belen’kii, Proc. SPIE 3126, 101 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. S. Belen’kii, Final Report for Summer Research Extension Program (U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, D.C., 1996).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variations of (a) the centroid of a LGS image integrated over the FOV of the receiver and (b) the centroid of an image of Polaris in the direction of maximum correlation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correlation coefficient between the tilt for Polaris and the LGS. Curve  1 is the correlation coefficient, lines  2 show the expected range for the axis of maximum correlation, and line  3 is the axis of maximum measured correlation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the measured tilt cross-correlation coefficient on the ratio σLGS2/σPL2.

Equations (3)

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σ¯down2=σ02θc/θR,
σ¯down2Da2/3.
bPL,LGS=φPLφLGSσup2+σ¯down21/2σPL21/2.

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