Abstract

Photosensitive effects distinguished as type I and type IIA photosensitivity within optical fibers were observed in a much more pronounced form within germanosilica waveguides deposited by hollow-cathode plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition. With increasing exposure to 193-nm UV light, positive index changes greater than 2×10-3 were observed, followed by negative index changes greater than -5×10-3. These behaviors are attributed to an increase in macroscopic polarizability and a reduction in material density, respectively. The negative index change is more temperature resistant and is fully annealed only at 900 °C, whereas the positive one is annealed at 500 °C.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, and D. Moss, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

L. Dong, W. F. Liu, and L. Reekie, Opt. Lett. 21, 2032 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, D. Moss, M. Faith, P. Leech, P. Kemeny, C. V. Poulsen, and C. Leistiko, Electron. Lett. 32, 1479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, P. L. Chu, and D. Moss, Electron. Lett. 32, 1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, A. Simonian, and P. L. Chu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 381 (1992).

1990 (1)

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Danis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, and A. M. Grouillet, Electron. Lett. 26, 2135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Atkins, G. R.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 381 (1992).

Bayon, J. F.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bazylenko, M. V.

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, and D. Moss, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, P. L. Chu, and D. Moss, Electron. Lett. 32, 1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, A. Simonian, and P. L. Chu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, D. Moss, M. Faith, P. Leech, P. Kemeny, C. V. Poulsen, and C. Leistiko, Electron. Lett. 32, 1479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, A. Simonian, and P. L. Chu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, P. L. Chu, and D. Moss, Electron. Lett. 32, 1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Danis, H.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Danis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, and A. M. Grouillet, Electron. Lett. 26, 2135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

Douay, M.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Faith, M.

J. Canning, D. Moss, M. Faith, P. Leech, P. Kemeny, C. V. Poulsen, and C. Leistiko, Electron. Lett. 32, 1479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, A.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Danis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, and A. M. Grouillet, Electron. Lett. 26, 2135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Georges, T.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grand, G.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Danis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, and A. M. Grouillet, Electron. Lett. 26, 2135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gross, M.

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, and D. Moss, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, P. L. Chu, and D. Moss, Electron. Lett. 32, 1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, A. Simonian, and P. L. Chu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grouillet, A. M.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Danis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, and A. M. Grouillet, Electron. Lett. 26, 2135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jadot, J. P.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Danis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, and A. M. Grouillet, Electron. Lett. 26, 2135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kemeny, P.

J. Canning, D. Moss, M. Faith, P. Leech, P. Kemeny, C. V. Poulsen, and C. Leistiko, Electron. Lett. 32, 1479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leech, P.

J. Canning, D. Moss, M. Faith, P. Leech, P. Kemeny, C. V. Poulsen, and C. Leistiko, Electron. Lett. 32, 1479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Legoubin, S.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leistiko, C.

J. Canning, D. Moss, M. Faith, P. Leech, P. Kemeny, C. V. Poulsen, and C. Leistiko, Electron. Lett. 32, 1479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. F.

Monerie, M.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, and D. Moss, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, D. Moss, M. Faith, P. Leech, P. Kemeny, C. V. Poulsen, and C. Leistiko, Electron. Lett. 32, 1479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, P. L. Chu, and D. Moss, Electron. Lett. 32, 1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poole, S. B.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 381 (1992).

Poulsen, C. V.

J. Canning, D. Moss, M. Faith, P. Leech, P. Kemeny, C. V. Poulsen, and C. Leistiko, Electron. Lett. 32, 1479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen, O.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

Sceats, M. G.

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 381 (1992).

Simonian, A.

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, A. Simonian, and P. L. Chu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Svalgaard, M.

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Valette, S.

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Danis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, and A. M. Grouillet, Electron. Lett. 26, 2135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. X.

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. G. Sceats, G. R. Atkins, and S. B. Poole, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 381 (1992).

Electron. Lett. (4)

G. Grand, J. P. Jadot, H. Danis, S. Valette, A. Fournier, and A. M. Grouillet, Electron. Lett. 26, 2135 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Svalgaard, C. V. Poulsen, A. Bjarklev, and O. Poulsen, Electron. Lett. 30, 1401 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, D. Moss, M. Faith, P. Leech, P. Kemeny, C. V. Poulsen, and C. Leistiko, Electron. Lett. 32, 1479 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, P. L. Chu, and D. Moss, Electron. Lett. 32, 1198 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, and D. Moss, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 7497 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. V. Bazylenko, M. Gross, A. Simonian, and P. L. Chu, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 14, 336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Niay, P. Bernage, S. Legoubin, M. Douay, W. X. Xie, J. F. Bayon, T. Georges, M. Monerie, and B. Poumellec, Opt. Commun. 113, 176 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

UV-induced change in the refractive index Δn of germanosilica (20  mol. %) planar waveguide as a function of a cumulative UV fluence. Irradiation conditions: 193  nm, 17 mJ/cm2 per pulse, 20  Hz. The error bars are represented by the size of the marks along the axes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Refractive index in UV-exposed and unexposed areas of the same sample. (b) Refractive index difference between UV-exposed and unexposed areas Δn as a function of annealing temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of pure and Ge-doped HC-PECVD silica.

Equations (1)

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Δn=n2-1n2+26n2Δαα-ΔVV,

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