Abstract

The electrostriction contribution to the nonlinear refractive index in optical fiber was theoretically calculated and measured. Nonlinearity was induced directly by insertion of the optical fiber into an intense external electric field. With this technique both the Kerr and the electrostrictive contributions to the intensity dependence of the nonlinear refractive index in a step-index fiber were measured. Good agreement between calculated and measured values was observed. These results should confirm and explain the differences observed in measurement of n2 at different bit rates.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Fellegara, M. Artiglia, S. B. Andreasen, A. Melloni, F. P. Espunes, and S. Wabnitz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1168 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Red, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 312.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Melloni, A. Fellegara, and M. Martinelli, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements (IEEE, Piscataway, N. J., 1996), p. 67.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Frasca, “Analisi teorico-sperimentale dell’elettro-strizione in fibra optica,” Laurea thesis (Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, 1997).

1997 (3)

A. Fellegara, M. Artiglia, S. B. Andreasen, A. Melloni, F. P. Espunes, and S. Wabnitz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fellegara, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Lett. 22, 1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Buckland and R. W. Boyd, Opt. Lett. 22, 676 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (4)

1993 (1)

L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

G. B. Benedek and K. Fritsch, Phys. Rev. 149, 647 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Andreasen, S. B.

A. Fellegara, M. Artiglia, S. B. Andreasen, A. Melloni, F. P. Espunes, and S. Wabnitz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Artiglia, M.

A. Fellegara, M. Artiglia, S. B. Andreasen, A. Melloni, F. P. Espunes, and S. Wabnitz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Benedek, G. B.

G. B. Benedek and K. Fritsch, Phys. Rev. 149, 647 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bertholds, A.

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

Boskovic, A.

Boyd, R. W.

Buckland, E. L.

Chernikov, S. V.

Dandliker, R.

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Espunes, F. P.

A. Fellegara, M. Artiglia, S. B. Andreasen, A. Melloni, F. P. Espunes, and S. Wabnitz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Evangelides, S. E.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Red, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 312.

Fellegara, A.

A. Fellegara, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Lett. 22, 1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fellegara, M. Artiglia, S. B. Andreasen, A. Melloni, F. P. Espunes, and S. Wabnitz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, A. Fellegara, and M. Martinelli, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements (IEEE, Piscataway, N. J., 1996), p. 67.

Frasca, M.

M. Frasca, “Analisi teorico-sperimentale dell’elettro-strizione in fibra optica,” Laurea thesis (Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, 1997).

Fritsch, K.

G. B. Benedek and K. Fritsch, Phys. Rev. 149, 647 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gallion, P.

D. Le Quang, Y. Jaouën, M. Zimmerli, P. Gallion, and J. B. Thomine, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gruner-Nielsen, L.

Hamaide, J. P.

L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hardman, P. J.

Harvey, G. T.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Red, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 312.

Jaouën, Y.

D. Le Quang, Y. Jaouën, M. Zimmerli, P. Gallion, and J. B. Thomine, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Red, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 312.

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, New York, 1960).

Le Quang, D.

D. Le Quang, Y. Jaouën, M. Zimmerli, P. Gallion, and J. B. Thomine, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Levring, O. A.

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, New York, 1960).

Martinelli, M.

A. Fellegara, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Lett. 22, 1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, A. Fellegara, and M. Martinelli, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements (IEEE, Piscataway, N. J., 1996), p. 67.

Melloni, A.

A. Fellegara, M. Artiglia, S. B. Andreasen, A. Melloni, F. P. Espunes, and S. Wabnitz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fellegara, A. Melloni, and M. Martinelli, Opt. Lett. 22, 1615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Melloni, A. Fellegara, and M. Martinelli, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements (IEEE, Piscataway, N. J., 1996), p. 67.

Poustie, A. J.

Prigent, L.

L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Red, W. A.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Red, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 312.

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Red, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 312.

Taylor, J. R.

Thomine, J. B.

D. Le Quang, Y. Jaouën, M. Zimmerli, P. Gallion, and J. B. Thomine, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

Wabnitz, S.

A. Fellegara, M. Artiglia, S. B. Andreasen, A. Melloni, F. P. Espunes, and S. Wabnitz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerli, M.

D. Le Quang, Y. Jaouën, M. Zimmerli, P. Gallion, and J. B. Thomine, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Fellegara, M. Artiglia, S. B. Andreasen, A. Melloni, F. P. Espunes, and S. Wabnitz, Electron. Lett. 33, 1168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Prigent and J. P. Hamaide, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1092 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Le Quang, Y. Jaouën, M. Zimmerli, P. Gallion, and J. B. Thomine, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 414 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Bertholds and R. Dandliker, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 17 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. (1)

G. B. Benedek and K. Fritsch, Phys. Rev. 149, 647 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

M. Frasca, “Analisi teorico-sperimentale dell’elettro-strizione in fibra optica,” Laurea thesis (Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, 1997).

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Pergamon, New York, 1960).

A. Melloni, A. Fellegara, and M. Martinelli, in Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements (IEEE, Piscataway, N. J., 1996), p. 67.

R. H. Stolen, K. S. Kim, S. E. Evangelides, G. T. Harvey, and W. A. Red, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 8 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 312.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: The FUT is held in vacuum to guarantee the maximum protection from environmental noise. HV, high-voltage; A, differential amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FUT between the two electrodes. The fiber is held at two points outside the electrodes.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Kerr and Electrostrictive Contribution to n2 (m2/W)

Equations (6)

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F=120(r|E|2+|E|2r)
ΔV=Hp=-0Ee2Vp(r-1r+1),
Δρ=12ρCγe0|E|2,
γe=ρrρ=n43(p11+2p12).
n2e=CTγe28n2c,
Δϕ=2πλLFUTn2η0(2bn2K|E|2-n2e|Ee|2),

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