Abstract

The intensity and the phase in surface second-harmonic generation were simultaneously measured by use of an ac optical balanced homodyne detection system. In this system the surface second-harmonic wave was superimposed upon a local oscillator wave generated by a barium borate nonlinear optical crystal and then detected as an interference signal. Extremely high sensitivity of 3  aW (6  photons/s) and high precision were achieved by use of a lock-in amplifier, in which an interference signal of fundamental waves was used as a reference signal. Simultaneous measurement of the intensity and the phase in surface second-harmonic waves generated from native-oxidized Si(111) surfaces is demonstrated.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. R. Shen, Nature (London) 337, 519 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  2. T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 353.
    [Crossref]
  3. J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. P. Yuen and V. W. S. Chen, Opt. Lett. 8, 177 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Thiansathaporn and R. Superfine, Opt. Lett. 20, 545 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
    [Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

P. Thiansathaporn and R. Superfine, Opt. Lett. 20, 545 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Y. R. Shen, Nature (London) 337, 519 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (2)

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[Crossref]

H. P. Yuen and V. W. S. Chen, Opt. Lett. 8, 177 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. E.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, K.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[Crossref]

Boggavarapu, D.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, V. W. S.

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[Crossref]

Deng, Q.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[Crossref]

Diebold, A. C.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[Crossref]

Doris, B.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[Crossref]

Downer, M. C.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[Crossref]

Eisenthal, K. B.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[Crossref]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[Crossref]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[Crossref]

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[Crossref]

T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 353.
[Crossref]

Hicks, J. M.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[Crossref]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kelly, P. V.

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kemnitz, K.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[Crossref]

Litwin, J. A.

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[Crossref]

Lowell, J. K.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[Crossref]

Loy, M. M. T.

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[Crossref]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[Crossref]

Machida, S.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[Crossref]

McGilp, J. F.

J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[Crossref]

Munroe, M.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[Crossref]

O’Mahony, J. D.

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[Crossref]

Pinto, G. R.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[Crossref]

Rasing, Th.

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[Crossref]

Raymer, M. G.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, Nature (London) 337, 519 (1989).
[Crossref]

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[Crossref]

Sipe, J. E.

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[Crossref]

Superfine, R.

Takiguchi, Y.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Thiansathaporn, P.

Thompson, W. A.

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[Crossref]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[Crossref]

Tom, H. W. K.

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[Crossref]

van Driel, H. M.

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yuen, H. P.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[Crossref]

Nature (London) (1)

Y. R. Shen, Nature (London) 337, 519 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[Crossref]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[Crossref]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).
[Crossref]

Surf. Sci. (1)

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 353.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the OBHD system. HWP1–HWP3, half-wave plates; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PD’s, photodiodes; HS’s, harmonic separators; other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Triangle modulation signal applied to the signal arm of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer and typical interference signals of the fundamental and the SHG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured output signal amplitude as a function of the SHG power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Azimuthal rotation dependence of the intensity and the phase in p-polarized SHG generated from a Si(111) surface.

Equations (1)

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Ep,p2ω=a+b cos3ϕ,

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