Abstract

The intensity and the phase in surface second-harmonic generation were simultaneously measured by use of an ac optical balanced homodyne detection system. In this system the surface second-harmonic wave was superimposed upon a local oscillator wave generated by a barium borate nonlinear optical crystal and then detected as an interference signal. Extremely high sensitivity of 3  aW (6  photons/s) and high precision were achieved by use of a lock-in amplifier, in which an interference signal of fundamental waves was used as a reference signal. Simultaneous measurement of the intensity and the phase in surface second-harmonic waves generated from native-oxidized Si(111) surfaces is demonstrated.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 353.
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

1998

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Thiansathaporn and R. Superfine, Opt. Lett. 20, 545 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

Y. R. Shen, Nature (London) 337, 519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Yuen and V. W. S. Chen, Opt. Lett. 8, 177 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. E.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, K.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Boggavarapu, D.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, V. W. S.

Dadap, J. I.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Q.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Diebold, A. C.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Doris, B.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eisenthal, K. B.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 353.
[CrossRef]

Hicks, J. M.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, P. V.

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kemnitz, K.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Litwin, J. A.

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lowell, J. K.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Loy, M. M. T.

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGilp, J. F.

J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Munroe, M.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O’Mahony, J. D.

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, G. R.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Raymer, M. G.

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Y. R. Shen, Nature (London) 337, 519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Superfine, R.

Takiguchi, Y.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thiansathaporn, P.

Thompson, W. A.

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Tom, H. W. K.

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, H. P.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. I. Dadap, B. Doris, Q. Deng, M. C. Downer, J. K. Lowell, and A. C. Diebold, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2139 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

K. Kemnitz, K. Bhattacharyya, J. M. Hicks, G. R. Pinto, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, Chem. Phys. Lett. 131, 285 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 3, 1467 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

Y. R. Shen, Nature (London) 337, 519 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

S. Jiang, S. Machida, Y. Takiguchi, H. Cao, and Y. Yamamoto, Opt. Commun. 145, 91 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

M. Munroe, D. Boggavarapu, M. E. Anderson, and M. G. Raymer, Phys. Rev. A 52, R924 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. A. Litwin, J. E. Sipe, and H. M. van Driel, Phys. Rev. B 31, 5543 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

H. W. K. Tom, T. F. Heinz, and Y. R. Shen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 1983 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, M. M. T. Loy, and W. A. Thompson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 63 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci.

J. F. McGilp, Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci.

P. V. Kelly, J. D. O’Mahony, J. F. McGilp, and Th. Rasing, Surf. Sci. 269/270, 849 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. F. Heinz, in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 353.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the OBHD system. HWP1–HWP3, half-wave plates; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PD’s, photodiodes; HS’s, harmonic separators; other abbreviations defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Triangle modulation signal applied to the signal arm of a Mach–Zehnder interferometer and typical interference signals of the fundamental and the SHG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured output signal amplitude as a function of the SHG power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Azimuthal rotation dependence of the intensity and the phase in p-polarized SHG generated from a Si(111) surface.

Equations (1)

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Ep,p2ω=a+b cos3ϕ,

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