Abstract

We applied photoacoustics as a tissue tomography technique for the detection of blood concentrations, e.g., angiogenesis around tumors. We imaged blood vessels in highly scattering samples, using 532-nm light, to depths of ~1 cm. The samples were real tissue (chicken breast) or 10% dilutions of Intralipid-10%. The blood flowed through nylon capillaries. Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVdF) piezoelectric detectors were used in a surface-scanning mode. We demonstrate the sensitivity of the technique by photoacoustic detection of single red blood cells upon a glass plate. Lateral resolution is limited by the detector diameter (200 µm). The depth resolution is ~10 µm.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. J. A. Evans, in Practical Ultrasound, R. Lerski, ed. (IRL, Oxford, UK, 1988), pp. 1–13.

1997 (3)

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 36, 402 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, F. K. Tittel, B. D. Fornage, S. L. Thomsen, C. Stelling, and A. A. Oraevsky, Proc. SPIE 2979, 1 (1997).

C. G. A. Hoelen, R. Pongers, G. Hamhuis, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 3196, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

M. I. Khan and G. J. Diebold, Ultrasonics 33, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 2628, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Karabutov, N. B. Podymova, and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Opt. 34, 1484 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, Med. Phys. 22, 1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acoustica 80, 339 (1994).

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (2)

D. A. Hutchins, Can. J. Phys. 64, 1247 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tam, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. M. Lai and K. Young, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 2000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. W. Sigrist and F. K. Kneubühl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1652 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Appledorn, C. R.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, Med. Phys. 22, 1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W.-F.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dassel, A. C. M.

Dawson, J. B.

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927 (1989).
[CrossRef]

de Mul, F. F. M.

C. G. A. Hoelen, R. Pongers, G. Hamhuis, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 3196, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 2628, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Graaff, A. C. M. Dassel, M. H. Koelink, F. F. M. de Mul, J. G. Aarnoudse, and W. G. Zijlstra, Appl. Opt. 32, 435 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diebold, G. J.

M. I. Khan and G. J. Diebold, Ultrasonics 33, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acoustica 80, 339 (1994).

Driver, I.

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, F. K. Tittel, B. D. Fornage, S. L. Thomsen, C. Stelling, and A. A. Oraevsky, Proc. SPIE 2979, 1 (1997).

Evans, J. A.

J. A. Evans, in Practical Ultrasound, R. Lerski, ed. (IRL, Oxford, UK, 1988), pp. 1–13.

Fang, Y. R.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, Med. Phys. 22, 1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feather, J. W.

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fornage, B. D.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, F. K. Tittel, B. D. Fornage, S. L. Thomsen, C. Stelling, and A. A. Oraevsky, Proc. SPIE 2979, 1 (1997).

Graaff, R.

Greve, J.

C. G. A. Hoelen, R. Pongers, G. Hamhuis, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 3196, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 2628, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamhuis, G.

C. G. A. Hoelen, R. Pongers, G. Hamhuis, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 3196, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoelen, C. G. A.

C. G. A. Hoelen, R. Pongers, G. Hamhuis, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 3196, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 2628, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hutchins, D. A.

D. A. Hutchins, Can. J. Phys. 64, 1247 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

Karabutov, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, F. K. Tittel, B. D. Fornage, S. L. Thomsen, C. Stelling, and A. A. Oraevsky, Proc. SPIE 2979, 1 (1997).

A. A. Karabutov, N. B. Podymova, and V. S. Letokhov, Appl. Opt. 34, 1484 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, M. I.

M. I. Khan and G. J. Diebold, Ultrasonics 33, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

King, P. R.

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kneubühl, F. K.

M. W. Sigrist and F. K. Kneubühl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1652 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Koelink, M. H.

Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, Med. Phys. 22, 1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, H. M.

H. M. Lai and K. Young, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 2000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

Liu, P.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, Med. Phys. 22, 1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moes, C. J. M.

Oraevsky, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, F. K. Tittel, B. D. Fornage, S. L. Thomsen, C. Stelling, and A. A. Oraevsky, Proc. SPIE 2979, 1 (1997).

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 36, 402 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podymova, N. B.

Pongers, R.

C. G. A. Hoelen, R. Pongers, G. Hamhuis, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 3196, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

Sigrist, M. W.

M. W. Sigrist and F. K. Kneubühl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1652 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stelling, C.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, F. K. Tittel, B. D. Fornage, S. L. Thomsen, C. Stelling, and A. A. Oraevsky, Proc. SPIE 2979, 1 (1997).

Sun, T.

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acoustica 80, 339 (1994).

Tam, A. C.

A. C. Tam, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, S. L.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, F. K. Tittel, B. D. Fornage, S. L. Thomsen, C. Stelling, and A. A. Oraevsky, Proc. SPIE 2979, 1 (1997).

Tittel, F. K.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, F. K. Tittel, B. D. Fornage, S. L. Thomsen, C. Stelling, and A. A. Oraevsky, Proc. SPIE 2979, 1 (1997).

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, and F. K. Tittel, Appl. Opt. 36, 402 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Marle, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Welch, A. J.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Young, K.

H. M. Lai and K. Young, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 2000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zijlstra, W. G.

Acoustica (1)

G. J. Diebold and T. Sun, Acoustica 80, 339 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Can. J. Phys. (1)

D. A. Hutchins, Can. J. Phys. 64, 1247 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

M. W. Sigrist and F. K. Kneubühl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 1652 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Lai and K. Young, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 72, 2000 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, Med. Phys. 22, 1605 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

I. Driver, J. W. Feather, P. R. King, and J. B. Dawson, Phys. Med. Biol. 34, 1927 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

C. G. A. Hoelen, R. Pongers, G. Hamhuis, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 3196, 142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. G. A. Hoelen, F. F. M. de Mul, and J. Greve, Proc. SPIE 2628, 308 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, F. K. Tittel, B. D. Fornage, S. L. Thomsen, C. Stelling, and A. A. Oraevsky, Proc. SPIE 2979, 1 (1997).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. C. Tam, Rev. Mod. Phys. 58, 381 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ultrasonics (1)

M. I. Khan and G. J. Diebold, Ultrasonics 33, 265 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. A. Evans, in Practical Ultrasound, R. Lerski, ed. (IRL, Oxford, UK, 1988), pp. 1–13.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup for PA detection and imaging of absorbers in turbid media. The laser had a 532-nm wavelength and produced 8-ns light pulses, with a 10-Hz repetition rate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top curve, PA signal (averaged 500 times) generated by two adjacent erythrocytes in phosphate-buffered saline at a fluence of 350 mJ/cm2, detected at 1.7 mm. Bottom curves, PA signals generated at 9.3 mm by capillary flow of an Evans Blue solution (μα = 300 cm−1) in a 10% Intralipid-10% dilution, with and without insertion of 5-mm-thick chicken breast tissue. Sound velocity, 1500 m/s.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top: PA imaging of the word TOP, constructed from 10-µm-thick carbon fiber glued on a transparent sheet, mounted in a 10% Intralipid-10% dilution at a distance of 2.5 mm from the light source and 1.52 mm from the plane of detection. The depth resolution obtained is 10 µm. Bottom: 3D PA image of 6-mm-thick chicken breast tissue containing two nylon capillaries filled with flowing whole blood at 2−4 mm depth. The acoustic coupling medium is water. The illumination is from the back side, and the PA signals are detected at the front side at z = 0 mm.

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