Abstract

Measurement of the thin nonlinearity profile of poled silica by the Maker fringe technique has been impossible because of total internal reflection (TIR) at the back surface of the sample. We demonstrate that this limitation can be removed by placing a prism against each face of the sample, thus avoiding TIR. This novel technique allows, for the first time to our knowledge, the nonlinearity profile of a thin film to be inferred by the Maker fringe technique. Applied to a silica sample thermally poled under standard conditions (275 °C and 5.3  kV for 30  min), it suggests a Gaussian profile with a 1/e width of 8 µm and a maximum d33 of 0.34  pm/V.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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1993 (1)

1991 (2)

1987 (1)

1970 (1)

J. Jerphagnon and S. J. Kurtz, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667 (1970).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the Maker fringe measurement: (a) standard method (beams are incident from an exit in air), (b) improved method with prisms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical plot of internal conversion efficiency as a function of internal propagation angle for two step-profile nonlinear regions. The dotted curve is the power-transmission Fresnel coefficient for the SH beam at the back surface, T2θω.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for absolute conversion efficiency measurement: M1, M2, microscope objectives; L1, L2, singlet lenses; IRF, IR filter; SF, 532-nm spike filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Internal conversion efficiency versus internal angle θω measured with and without the prisms. The solid and the dashed curves are the best fits to the experimental data with a Gaussian and a step profile, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Best-fit Gaussian d33z profile used to generate the solid curve in Fig.  4 (peak d33=0.34 pm/V; 1/e width, 8 µm; buried depth, 2.5 µm) and best-fit step profile used to generate the dashed curved in Fig.  4 (peak d33=0.33 pm/V, L=8 µm).

Equations (2)

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η=2ω20c3nω2n2ωsin2 θωcos2 θω20d33zexpiΔkzdz2×T2θωT12θωπwxwyθω/2,
Δk=2ωcn2ω cos θ2ω-nω cos θω.

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