Abstract

All-reflective Michelson, Sagnac, and Fabry–Perot interferometers based on grating beam splitters are experi-mentally demonstrated at a wavelength of 1064  nm. A 1200-groove/mm grating diffracting 0 and -1 orders with an efficiency of 48.2% for each order was used as a near-50/50 beam splitter. The all-reflective Sagnac and Michelson interferometers were formed by reintroducing both of the diffracted beams back to the grating. The Fabry–Perot interferometer was formed in a Littrow configuration by using a 1700-groove/mm grating with a blazing efficiency of 91% as a cavity coupler. These interferometers encompass all the fundamental configurations of all-reflective laser interferometric gravitational-wave detectors, promising improved wave-front quality by avoiding volume thermal effects in transmissive optics under high-power laser illumination.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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1996 (1)

K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Shilling, K. A. Strain, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Commun. 112, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. A 44, 7022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

P. Saulson, Phys. Rev. D 42, 2437 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abramovici, A.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Althouse, W. E.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1987).

Boyd, R.

Britten, J.

Byer, R. L.

K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Arie and R. L. Byer, Appl. Opt. 32, 7382 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Byer, in Gravitational Astronomy:?Instrument Design and Astrophysical Prospects, D. E. McClelland and H.-A. Bachor, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990).

Danzmann, K.

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Shilling, K. A. Strain, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Commun. 112, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. A 44, 7022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decker, D.

Drever, R.

R. Drever, in Proceedings of the Seventh Marcel Grossman Meeting on General Relativity, M. Keiser and R. T. Jantzen, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

Drever, R. W. P.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gursel, Y.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, E.

K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawamura, S.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M.

Raab, F.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rudiger, A.

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Shilling, K. A. Strain, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Commun. 112, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. A 44, 7022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saulson, P.

P. Saulson, Phys. Rev. D 42, 2437 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. A 44, 7022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shannon, C.

Shilling, R.

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Shilling, K. A. Strain, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Commun. 112, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shoemaker, D.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B.

Shults, E.

Sievers, L.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spero, R. E.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Strain, K. A.

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Shilling, K. A. Strain, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Commun. 112, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.-X.

K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-X. Sun, presented at the Optical Society of America 1997 Annual Meeting, Long Beach, Calif., October 11–17, 1997.

Thorne, K. S.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, R. E.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, R.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whitcomb, S.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Winkler, W.

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Shilling, K. A. Strain, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Commun. 112, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. A 44, 7022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1987).

Zucker, M. E.

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Winkler, A. Rudiger, R. Shilling, K. A. Strain, and K. Danzmann, Opt. Commun. 112, 245 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rudiger, and R. Schilling, Phys. Rev. A 44, 7022 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

P. Saulson, Phys. Rev. D 42, 2437 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K.-X. Sun, M. M. Fejer, E. Gustafson, and R. L. Byer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3053 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

For example, see, A. Abramovici, W. E. Althouse, R. W. P. Drever, Y. Gursel, S. Kawamura, F. Raab, D. Shoemaker, L. Sievers, R. E. Spero, K. S. Thorne, R. E. Vogt, R. Weiss, S. Whitcomb, and M. E. Zucker, Science 256, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1987).

R. Petit, ed. Electromagnetic Theory of Gratings (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1980).
[CrossRef]

K.-X. Sun, presented at the Optical Society of America 1997 Annual Meeting, Long Beach, Calif., October 11–17, 1997.

R. L. Byer, in Gravitational Astronomy:?Instrument Design and Astrophysical Prospects, D. E. McClelland and H.-A. Bachor, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1990).

R. Drever, in Proceedings of the Seventh Marcel Grossman Meeting on General Relativity, M. Keiser and R. T. Jantzen, eds. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for the all-reflective Michelson interferometer based on a grating beam splitter: LASER, 1064  nm diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser; other abbreviations defined in text. (b) Waveforms from the all-reflective Michelson interferometer. Upper trace: PZT scan; each ramp is over a full wavelength. Sinusoidal traces: fringes from the reflecting and transmitting ports. The traces are at the same power scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup for the all-reflective zero-area Sagnac interferometer based on a grating beam splitter. Abbreviations are the same as in Fig.  1(a). M3, additional mirror to form the Sagnac loop. (b) Waveforms from the all-reflective Sagnac interferometer. Upper trace: PZT scan; each ramp is over a full wavelength. Middle trace: output from the reflecting port. Lower trace: output from the transmitting port.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup for the Fabry–Perot grating cavity: HR, high reflector; CIRCULATOR, Faraday isolator. (b) Waveforms from the all-reflective Fabry–Perot cavity. PZT scan; each ramp is over a half wavelength. Middle trace: output from the reflecting port. Lower trace: output from the transmitting port.

Equations (2)

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dsin θm-sin θinc=mλ,
2d sinθinc+45°=λ,

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