Abstract

A novel optical imaging technique called sonoluminescent tomography was developed for cross-sectional imaging of strongly scattering media noninvasively. Sonoluminescence, which was generated internally in the medium by cw ultrasound, was used to produce a two-dimensional image of an object embedded in a scattering medium by means of raster scanning the medium. The image had a high contrast and good spatial resolution. The spatial resolution was limited by the focal-spot size of the ultrasound, and one could improve the resolution by tightening the focus. This inexpensive imaging technique has potential applications in medicine and other fields related to scattering media.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).
  2. H. Frenzel and H. Schultes, Z. Phys. Chem. B 27, 421 (1934).
  3. B. P. Barber and S. J. Putterman, Nature (London) 352, 318 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. B. Flint and K. S. Suslick, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1484 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. A. Crum and S. Putterman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 517 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. C. Wu and P. H. Roberts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3424 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. C. Moss, D. B. Clarke, J. W. White, and D. A. Young, Phys. Fluids 6, 2979 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. A. Crum and R. A. Roy, Science 266, 233 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Eberlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3482 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. B. Young, T. Schmiedel, and W. Kang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4816 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. B. P. Barber, R. A. Hiller, R. Löfstedt, S. J. Putterman, and K. R. Weninger, Phys. Rep. 281, 65 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Hiller and B. P. Barber, Sci. Am. 272(2), 96 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. A. Crum, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 559 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. T. Didenko, T. V. Gordeychuk, and V. L. Koretz, J. Sound Vib. 147, 409 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Appl. Opt. 30, 4507 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. Henglein, R. Ulrich, and J. Lilie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 1974 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. J. Fry, N. T. Sanghvi, R. S. Foster, R. Bihrle, and C. Hennige, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 1227 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. A. Whittingham, Imaging 6, 33 (1994).

1997 (1)

B. P. Barber, R. A. Hiller, R. Löfstedt, S. J. Putterman, and K. R. Weninger, Phys. Rep. 281, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

C. Eberlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3482 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Young, T. Schmiedel, and W. Kang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4816 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

R. A. Hiller and B. P. Barber, Sci. Am. 272(2), 96 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Fry, N. T. Sanghvi, R. S. Foster, R. Bihrle, and C. Hennige, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

T. A. Whittingham, Imaging 6, 33 (1994).

L. A. Crum, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Moss, D. B. Clarke, J. W. White, and D. A. Young, Phys. Fluids 6, 2979 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Crum and R. A. Roy, Science 266, 233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

C. C. Wu and P. H. Roberts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3424 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

L. A. Crum and S. Putterman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

B. P. Barber and S. J. Putterman, Nature (London) 352, 318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Flint and K. S. Suslick, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1484 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marie, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, Appl. Opt. 30, 4507 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Didenko, T. V. Gordeychuk, and V. L. Koretz, J. Sound Vib. 147, 409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. Henglein, R. Ulrich, and J. Lilie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 1974 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1934 (1)

H. Frenzel and H. Schultes, Z. Phys. Chem. B 27, 421 (1934).

Barber, B. P.

B. P. Barber, R. A. Hiller, R. Löfstedt, S. J. Putterman, and K. R. Weninger, Phys. Rep. 281, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hiller and B. P. Barber, Sci. Am. 272(2), 96 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Barber and S. J. Putterman, Nature (London) 352, 318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bihrle, R.

F. J. Fry, N. T. Sanghvi, R. S. Foster, R. Bihrle, and C. Hennige, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, D. B.

W. C. Moss, D. B. Clarke, J. W. White, and D. A. Young, Phys. Fluids 6, 2979 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crum, L. A.

L. A. Crum and R. A. Roy, Science 266, 233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Crum, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Crum and S. Putterman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Didenko, Y. T.

Y. T. Didenko, T. V. Gordeychuk, and V. L. Koretz, J. Sound Vib. 147, 409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Eberlein, C.

C. Eberlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3482 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flint, E. B.

E. B. Flint and K. S. Suslick, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1484 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Foster, R. S.

F. J. Fry, N. T. Sanghvi, R. S. Foster, R. Bihrle, and C. Hennige, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frenzel, H.

H. Frenzel and H. Schultes, Z. Phys. Chem. B 27, 421 (1934).

Fry, F. J.

F. J. Fry, N. T. Sanghvi, R. S. Foster, R. Bihrle, and C. Hennige, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gordeychuk, T. V.

Y. T. Didenko, T. V. Gordeychuk, and V. L. Koretz, J. Sound Vib. 147, 409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Henglein, A.

A. Henglein, R. Ulrich, and J. Lilie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 1974 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hennige, C.

F. J. Fry, N. T. Sanghvi, R. S. Foster, R. Bihrle, and C. Hennige, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hiller, R. A.

B. P. Barber, R. A. Hiller, R. Löfstedt, S. J. Putterman, and K. R. Weninger, Phys. Rep. 281, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hiller and B. P. Barber, Sci. Am. 272(2), 96 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kang, W.

J. B. Young, T. Schmiedel, and W. Kang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4816 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koretz, V. L.

Y. T. Didenko, T. V. Gordeychuk, and V. L. Koretz, J. Sound Vib. 147, 409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lilie, J.

A. Henglein, R. Ulrich, and J. Lilie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 1974 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Löfstedt, R.

B. P. Barber, R. A. Hiller, R. Löfstedt, S. J. Putterman, and K. R. Weninger, Phys. Rep. 281, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moes, C. J. M.

Moss, W. C.

W. C. Moss, D. B. Clarke, J. W. White, and D. A. Young, Phys. Fluids 6, 2979 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

Putterman, S.

L. A. Crum and S. Putterman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Putterman, S. J.

B. P. Barber, R. A. Hiller, R. Löfstedt, S. J. Putterman, and K. R. Weninger, Phys. Rep. 281, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Barber and S. J. Putterman, Nature (London) 352, 318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. H.

C. C. Wu and P. H. Roberts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3424 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, R. A.

L. A. Crum and R. A. Roy, Science 266, 233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanghvi, N. T.

F. J. Fry, N. T. Sanghvi, R. S. Foster, R. Bihrle, and C. Hennige, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmiedel, T.

J. B. Young, T. Schmiedel, and W. Kang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4816 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultes, H.

H. Frenzel and H. Schultes, Z. Phys. Chem. B 27, 421 (1934).

Suslick, K. S.

E. B. Flint and K. S. Suslick, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1484 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

A. Henglein, R. Ulrich, and J. Lilie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 1974 (1989).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Marie, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weninger, K. R.

B. P. Barber, R. A. Hiller, R. Löfstedt, S. J. Putterman, and K. R. Weninger, Phys. Rep. 281, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, J. W.

W. C. Moss, D. B. Clarke, J. W. White, and D. A. Young, Phys. Fluids 6, 2979 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whittingham, T. A.

T. A. Whittingham, Imaging 6, 33 (1994).

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Wu and P. H. Roberts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3424 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, D. A.

W. C. Moss, D. B. Clarke, J. W. White, and D. A. Young, Phys. Fluids 6, 2979 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. B.

J. B. Young, T. Schmiedel, and W. Kang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4816 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Imaging (1)

T. A. Whittingham, Imaging 6, 33 (1994).

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

L. A. Crum, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 95, 559 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Crum and S. Putterman, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 91, 517 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

A. Henglein, R. Ulrich, and J. Lilie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 111, 1974 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

E. B. Flint and K. S. Suslick, J. Phys. Chem. 95, 1484 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Sound Vib. (1)

Y. T. Didenko, T. V. Gordeychuk, and V. L. Koretz, J. Sound Vib. 147, 409 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

B. P. Barber and S. J. Putterman, Nature (London) 352, 318 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

W. C. Moss, D. B. Clarke, J. W. White, and D. A. Young, Phys. Fluids 6, 2979 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

B. P. Barber, R. A. Hiller, R. Löfstedt, S. J. Putterman, and K. R. Weninger, Phys. Rep. 281, 65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. Eberlein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3482 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Young, T. Schmiedel, and W. Kang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4816 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. C. Wu and P. H. Roberts, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3424 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Am. (1)

R. A. Hiller and B. P. Barber, Sci. Am. 272(2), 96 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. A. Crum and R. A. Roy, Science 266, 233 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol. (1)

F. J. Fry, N. T. Sanghvi, R. S. Foster, R. Bihrle, and C. Hennige, Ultrasound Med. Biol. 21, 1227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. Chem. B (1)

H. Frenzel and H. Schultes, Z. Phys. Chem. B 27, 421 (1934).

Other (1)

R. R. Alfano and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Advances in Optical Imaging and Photon Migration, Vol. 2 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for imaging scattering media with SL.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of MBSL by a CCD camera (1  cm/division on the scale shown in the figure).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photographs of the cubic object with a scale of 1  cm/division (A) in a clear solution and (B) in a scattering solution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Two-dimensional SLT images of (A) a pink rubber cube in sample I and (B) a pink rubber cube in sample II.

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