Abstract

We used near-infrared spectroscopy to separate tissue scattering changes from changes in cerebral oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and the redox state of cytochrome-c-oxidase. A separate term of the transport scattering coefficient μs was included in a modified Lambert–Beer equation. It is shown by diffusion equation analysis that there is a simple relationship between the differential path-length factor Da and its scattering equivalent Ds. The method was applied to cortical spreading depression (CSD) data recorded through the skulls of rats. Biphasic changes in μs of ±0.1 mm-1 were observed during CSD's that spread with a velocity of 5 mm/min. The method proposed has the promise to permit monitoring of scattering changes noninvasively in humans during cortical activation or pathophysiological conditions.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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1997 (2)

1996 (3)

M. Kohl, R. Watson, and M. Cope, Opt. Lett. 21, 1519 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Malonek and A. Grinvald, Science 272, 551 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wolf, U. Lindauer, H. Obrig, J. Dreier, T. Back, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D. C. Hood, Psychophysiology 32, 505 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Fishkin, P. T. C. So, A. E. Cerussi, S. Fantini, M. A. Franceschini, and E. Gratton, Appl. Opt. 34, 1143 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, Science 198, 1264 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aarnoudse, J. G.

Anderson, E. R.

Arridge, S. R.

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Appl. Opt. 32, 418 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Back, T.

T. Wolf, U. Lindauer, H. Obrig, J. Dreier, T. Back, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blonder, G. E.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cerussi, A. E.

Chance, B.

Cho, E.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D. C. Hood, Psychophysiology 32, 505 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cope, M.

Corballis, P. M.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D. C. Hood, Psychophysiology 32, 505 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Mul, F. F. M.

Delpy, D. T.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Appl. Opt. 36, 386 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Appl. Opt. 32, 418 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dirnagl, U.

T. Wolf, U. Lindauer, H. Obrig, J. Dreier, T. Back, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreier, J.

T. Wolf, U. Lindauer, H. Obrig, J. Dreier, T. Back, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elwell, C. E.

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Appl. Opt. 32, 418 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Essenpreis, M.

Fabiani, M.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D. C. Hood, Psychophysiology 32, 505 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fantini, S.

Fishkin, J. B.

Franceschini, M. A.

Graff, R.

Gratton, E.

Gratton, G.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D. C. Hood, Psychophysiology 32, 505 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greve, J.

Grinvald, A.

D. Malonek and A. Grinvald, Science 272, 551 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, A. J.

M. Nedergaard and A. J. Hansen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 13, 568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, R. C.

Hood, D. C.

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D. C. Hood, Psychophysiology 32, 505 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jöbsis, F. F.

F. F. Jöbsis, Science 198, 1264 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kienle, A.

Kleinfeld, D.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koelink, M. H.

Kohl, M.

LaPorta, A.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lauritzen, M.

M. Lauritzen, Brain 117, 199 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lindauer, U.

T. Wolf, U. Lindauer, H. Obrig, J. Dreier, T. Back, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malonek, D.

D. Malonek and A. Grinvald, Science 272, 551 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masden, S. J.

Matcher, S. J.

S. J. Matcher, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Appl. Opt. 36, 386 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nedergaard, M.

M. Nedergaard and A. J. Hansen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 13, 568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obrig, H.

T. Wolf, U. Lindauer, H. Obrig, J. Dreier, T. Back, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

Raccuia-Behling, F.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sloot, P. M. A.

Slusher, R. E.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

So, P. T. C.

Stepnoski, R. A.

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

van der Zee, P.

M. Essenpreis, C. E. Elwell, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, and D. T. Delpy, Appl. Opt. 32, 418 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

T. Wolf, U. Lindauer, H. Obrig, J. Dreier, T. Back, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, R.

Wilson, B. C.

Wolf, T.

T. Wolf, U. Lindauer, H. Obrig, J. Dreier, T. Back, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wray, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziip, J. R.

Anal. Biochem. (1)

S. J. Matcher, C. E. Elwell, C. E. Cooper, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, Anal. Biochem. 227, 54 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Brain (1)

M. Lauritzen, Brain 117, 199 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2)

T. Wolf, U. Lindauer, H. Obrig, J. Dreier, T. Back, A. Villringer, and U. Dirnagl, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 16, 1100 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nedergaard and A. J. Hansen, J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 13, 568 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. R. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. S. Wyatt, Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

R. A. Stepnoski, A. LaPorta, F. Raccuia-Behling, G. E. Blonder, R. E. Slusher, and D. Kleinfeld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9382 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Psychophysiology (1)

G. Gratton, P. M. Corballis, E. Cho, M. Fabiani, and D. C. Hood, Psychophysiology 32, 505 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

F. F. Jöbsis, Science 198, 1264 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. Malonek and A. Grinvald, Science 272, 551 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Da=r-1A/μa (solid curves) and Ds-1=r-1A/μs-1 (dashed curves) for a homogeneous medium for r=5, 20 mm (a) for μs=2 mm-1 as a function of μa and (b) for μs=2 mm-1 as a function of μs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependence of the differential path-length factor Daλ measured on the skulls of rats n=6 for r=5 mm and normalized at 800  nm. The error bars give the standard error.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three CSD's recorded on a rat skull for a source–detector separation of 5  mm. (a) Attenuation changes for two wavelengths. For the calculation of changes (b) in oxy-Hb, deoxy-Hb, and Cyt-ox and (c) in the transport scattering coefficient at 800  nm Δμs, attenuation data from 700 to 920  nm were used. The dc potential was recorded with a calomel electrode. Data recorded during hypoxia (HO) and hypercapnia (HC) and at death are shown.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔAλ=riiλΔciDaλ+δSμs0λDsλ.
Rμs, μa, r=1μs1ρ+μeffexp-μeffρ2πρ2,
Dsμs, μa-1=1rAμs-1Daμs, μa=1rAμa.

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