Abstract

Photonic true-time-delay (TTD) lines offer many advantages over their electronic counterparts and are attracting more and more research effort. We demonstrate a device with 32  TTD lines (5-bit) based on substrate guided-wave propagation combined with slanted photopolymer volume phase gratings on a quartz substrate. System design, device fabrication, optimization of fan-out intensity uniformity, and device performance evaluation are addressed as well. The device has a measured bandwidth of up to 2.4  THz and a measured fan-out delay step of 50  ps. The fan-out beam intensity uniformity is within ±10%. The packing density is 2.5  delay lines/cm2, which is to our knowledge the highest demonstrated thus far.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  5. R. J. Mailloux, Phased Array Antenna Handbook (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. C. T. Sullivan, S. D. Mukherjee, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, and A. Gopinath, Proc. SPIE 1703, 264 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. T. Chen and R. Li, Proc. SPIE 2689, 176 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Li and R. T. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 100 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Li, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Proc. SPIE 3006, 256 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. Li and R. T. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Proc. SPIE 3006, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. T. Chen and R. Li, Proc. SPIE 2689, 176 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1993 (2)

R. T. Chen, S. Tang, M. Li, D. Gerald, and S. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Gambogi, A. M. Weber, and T. J. Trout, Proc. SPIE 2043, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, and J. Watson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. MTT-S Digest R-6, 681 (1992).

A. Goutzoulis and K. Davies, Proc. SPIE 1703, 604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Sullivan, S. D. Mukherjee, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, and A. Gopinath, Proc. SPIE 1703, 264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Wang, G. J. Sonek, R. T. Chen, and T. Jannson, Appl. Opt. 31, 236 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E. N. Toughlian and H. Zmuda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1824 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, E.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, and J. Watson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. MTT-S Digest R-6, 681 (1992).

Bernstein, N.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, J.

Chen, R. T.

R. Li and R. T. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Proc. SPIE 3006, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen and R. Li, Proc. SPIE 2689, 176 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen, S. Tang, M. Li, D. Gerald, and S. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Wang, G. J. Sonek, R. T. Chen, and T. Jannson, Appl. Opt. 31, 236 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, K.

A. Goutzoulis and K. Davies, Proc. SPIE 1703, 604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z.

R. Li, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Proc. SPIE 3006, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gambogi, W. J.

W. J. Gambogi, A. M. Weber, and T. J. Trout, Proc. SPIE 2043, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gerald, D.

R. T. Chen, S. Tang, M. Li, D. Gerald, and S. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, A.

C. T. Sullivan, S. D. Mukherjee, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, and A. Gopinath, Proc. SPIE 1703, 264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goutzoulis, A.

A. Goutzoulis and K. Davies, Proc. SPIE 1703, 604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, R.

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, R. Hayes, and A. Wilston, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper IWA4.

Hibbs-Brenner, M. K.

C. T. Sullivan, S. D. Mukherjee, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, and A. Gopinath, Proc. SPIE 1703, 264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jannson, T.

Kasemset, D.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, and J. Watson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. MTT-S Digest R-6, 681 (1992).

Knittel, G. H.

A. A. Oliner and G. H. Knittel, Phased Array Antennas (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1972).

Kostuk, R. K.

Lee, J. J.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

R. T. Chen, S. Tang, M. Li, D. Gerald, and S. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

R. Li, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Proc. SPIE 3006, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Li and R. T. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen and R. Li, Proc. SPIE 2689, 176 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mailloux, R. J.

R. J. Mailloux, Phased Array Antenna Handbook (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

Minford, W.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, and J. Watson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. MTT-S Digest R-6, 681 (1992).

Mukherjee, S. D.

C. T. Sullivan, S. D. Mukherjee, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, and A. Gopinath, Proc. SPIE 1703, 264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Narayanan, A.

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, R. Hayes, and A. Wilston, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper IWA4.

Natarajan, S.

R. T. Chen, S. Tang, M. Li, D. Gerald, and S. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Newberg, I. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, R. Hayes, and A. Wilston, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper IWA4.

Oliner, A. A.

A. A. Oliner and G. H. Knittel, Phased Array Antennas (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1972).

Rhee, U.

Shamir, J.

Sonek, G. J.

Sullivan, C. T.

C. T. Sullivan, S. D. Mukherjee, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, and A. Gopinath, Proc. SPIE 1703, 264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

R. T. Chen, S. Tang, M. Li, D. Gerald, and S. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tangonan, G. L.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thorsten, N.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, and J. Watson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. MTT-S Digest R-6, 681 (1992).

Toughlian, E. N.

E. N. Toughlian and H. Zmuda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1824 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Zmuda and E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

Trout, T. J.

W. J. Gambogi, A. M. Weber, and T. J. Trout, Proc. SPIE 2043, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vikram, C. S.

Walston, A. A.

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. R.

Wanuga, S.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, and J. Watson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. MTT-S Digest R-6, 681 (1992).

Watson, J.

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, and J. Watson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. MTT-S Digest R-6, 681 (1992).

Weber, A. M.

W. J. Gambogi, A. M. Weber, and T. J. Trout, Proc. SPIE 2043, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wilston, A.

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, R. Hayes, and A. Wilston, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper IWA4.

Yap, D.

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, R. Hayes, and A. Wilston, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper IWA4.

Yeh, J.

Zmuda, H.

E. N. Toughlian and H. Zmuda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1824 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. Zmuda and E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. T. Chen, S. Tang, M. Li, D. Gerald, and S. Natarajan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1883 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

E. N. Toughlian and H. Zmuda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1824 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, and N. Bernstein, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 1124 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Li and R. T. Chen, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. MTT-S Digest (1)

E. Ackerman, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, W. Minford, N. Thorsten, and J. Watson, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theor. Tech. MTT-S Digest R-6, 681 (1992).

Proc. SPIE (5)

A. Goutzoulis and K. Davies, Proc. SPIE 1703, 604 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Sullivan, S. D. Mukherjee, M. K. Hibbs-Brenner, and A. Gopinath, Proc. SPIE 1703, 264 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Chen and R. Li, Proc. SPIE 2689, 176 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Gambogi, A. M. Weber, and T. J. Trout, Proc. SPIE 2043, 2 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Fu, and R. T. Chen, Proc. SPIE 3006, 256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. A. Oliner and G. H. Knittel, Phased Array Antennas (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1972).

W. Ng, D. Yap, A. Narayanan, R. Hayes, and A. Wilston, in Integrated Photonics Research, Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), paper IWA4.

R. J. Mailloux, Phased Array Antenna Handbook (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

H. Zmuda and E. N. Toughlian, Photonic Aspects of Modern Radar (Artech House, Norwood, Mass., 1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

5-bit optical delay lines based on a substrate guided mode with holographic grating couplers. RF, radio-frequency; GRIN, graded-index; OEIC, optoelectronic integrated circuit.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

CCD image of 5-bit delay fan-out lines 4×8 with a fan-out intensity fluctuation within ±10%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative beam intensities of 32  fan-outs from the TTD unit.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two pulses coming from successive fan-outs with a 50-ps delay between them.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Pulse width measured before and after the TTD unit. (b) Fast Fourier transform (FFT) power spectrum for the input and output pulses.

Equations (1)

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ηk=η11-k-1η1,  k=1, 2, 3,  N,

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