Abstract

A new device, consisting of two phase gratings oriented with a small angle between their grating grooves, acts as a variable-profile diffraction grating that produces variations in the diffraction orders as the illumination region is moved across the device. Combinations of phase gratings that optimize the effect and act as passive light modulators are given. An experiment that demonstrates the principle is described.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. E. Motamedi, in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol. CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews in Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 302–328.
  2. M. W. Farn, Appl. Opt. 33, 5151 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. S. Rockward, “Crossed phase gratings using diffractive optical elements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga., 1997).
  4. G. H. Derrick, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, and M. Neviére, Appl. Phys. 18, 39 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81–93, 193–205 (1874).
  6. J. Guild, The Interference Systems of Crossed Diffraction Gratings (Clarendon, Oxford, 1956).
  7. R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, and T. J. Cloonan, in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol.??CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews in Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 265–289.
  8. D. C. O'Shea, J. Belectic, and M. Poutous, Appl. Opt. 32, 2566 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1979 (1)

G. H. Derrick, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, and M. Neviére, Appl. Phys. 18, 39 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1874 (1)

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81–93, 193–205 (1874).

Belectic, J.

Cloonan, T. J.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, and T. J. Cloonan, in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol.??CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews in Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 265–289.

Derrick, G. H.

G. H. Derrick, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, and M. Neviére, Appl. Phys. 18, 39 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Farn, M. W.

Guild, J.

J. Guild, The Interference Systems of Crossed Diffraction Gratings (Clarendon, Oxford, 1956).

Maystre, D.

G. H. Derrick, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, and M. Neviére, Appl. Phys. 18, 39 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, F. B.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, and T. J. Cloonan, in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol.??CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews in Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 265–289.

McPhedran, R. C.

G. H. Derrick, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, and M. Neviére, Appl. Phys. 18, 39 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, R. L.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, and T. J. Cloonan, in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol.??CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews in Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 265–289.

Motamedi, M. E.

M. E. Motamedi, in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol. CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews in Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 302–328.

Neviére, M.

G. H. Derrick, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, and M. Neviére, Appl. Phys. 18, 39 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O'Shea, D. C.

Poutous, M.

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81–93, 193–205 (1874).

Rockward, W. S.

W. S. Rockward, “Crossed phase gratings using diffractive optical elements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga., 1997).

Walker, S. L.

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, and T. J. Cloonan, in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol.??CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews in Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 265–289.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. (1)

G. H. Derrick, R. C. McPhedran, D. Maystre, and M. Neviére, Appl. Phys. 18, 39 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Mag. (1)

Lord Rayleigh, Phil. Mag. 47, 81–93, 193–205 (1874).

Other (4)

J. Guild, The Interference Systems of Crossed Diffraction Gratings (Clarendon, Oxford, 1956).

R. L. Morrison, S. L. Walker, F. B. McCormick, and T. J. Cloonan, in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol.??CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews in Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 265–289.

M. E. Motamedi, in Diffractive and Miniaturized Optics, S. H. Lee, ed., Vol. CR49 of SPIE Critical Reviews in Optical Science and Technology (SPIE, Bellingham, Wash., 1994), pp. 302–328.

W. S. Rockward, “Crossed phase gratings using diffractive optical elements,” Ph.D. dissertation (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Ga., 1997).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plots of the diffraction efficiency of the zero and first orders as a function of shear for sheared grating Models A–C. Insets, profiles of the individual gratings and results of a plane wave transmitted through the combined gratings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Magnified region of the moiré fringes created by the crossed-phase gratings. The prescribed line segments XX, YY, and ZZ from (a) are the equivalent shear locations of (b) δ=+50%, (c) δ=0%, and (d) δ=-50%, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency as a function of shear for 0, -1, and +1 orders of the individual gratings.

Equations (1)

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Δ=d02tan θ=d02wgwm,

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