Abstract

The mechanical resistance of single-mode fibers containing fiber Bragg gratings inscribed with cw UV laser irradiation is almost identical to that of pristine fiber. The median breaking strength of the gratings’ Weibull distribution is more than 5  GPa, and the m value is of the order of 70. Based on a dynamic fatigue model, a Bragg grating lifetime of 50 years with a failure probability of 0.001 is predicted, assuming a constant applied stress of 0.96  GPa.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. G. Limberger, D. Varelas, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Proc. SPIE 2841, 84 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Electron. Lett. 33, 804 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Feced, M. P. Poe-Edwards, S. E. Kanellopoulos, N. H. Taylor, and V. A. Handerek, Electron. Lett. 33, 157 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 33, 704 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. P. Kapron and H. H. Yuce, Opt. Eng. 30, 700 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Mitsunaga, Y. Katsuyama, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Ishida, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4847 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Griffioen, Opt. Eng. 33, 488 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Electron. Lett. 33, 804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Feced, M. P. Poe-Edwards, S. E. Kanellopoulos, N. H. Taylor, and V. A. Handerek, Electron. Lett. 33, 157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 33, 704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. G. Limberger, D. Varelas, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Proc. SPIE 2841, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. Griffioen, Opt. Eng. 33, 488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. P. Kapron and H. H. Yuce, Opt. Eng. 30, 700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Y. Mitsunaga, Y. Katsuyama, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Ishida, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Feced, R.

R. Feced, M. P. Poe-Edwards, S. E. Kanellopoulos, N. H. Taylor, and V. A. Handerek, Electron. Lett. 33, 157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Griffioen, W.

W. Griffioen, Opt. Eng. 33, 488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Handerek, V. A.

R. Feced, M. P. Poe-Edwards, S. E. Kanellopoulos, N. H. Taylor, and V. A. Handerek, Electron. Lett. 33, 157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, Y.

Y. Mitsunaga, Y. Katsuyama, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Ishida, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kanellopoulos, S. E.

R. Feced, M. P. Poe-Edwards, S. E. Kanellopoulos, N. H. Taylor, and V. A. Handerek, Electron. Lett. 33, 157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kapron, F. P.

F. P. Kapron and H. H. Yuce, Opt. Eng. 30, 700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Katsuyama, Y.

Y. Mitsunaga, Y. Katsuyama, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Ishida, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

Y. Mitsunaga, Y. Katsuyama, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Ishida, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kotrotsios, G.

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Electron. Lett. 33, 804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, D. Varelas, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Proc. SPIE 2841, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Limberger, H. G.

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 33, 704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Electron. Lett. 33, 804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, D. Varelas, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Proc. SPIE 2841, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitsunaga, Y.

Y. Mitsunaga, Y. Katsuyama, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Ishida, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Poe-Edwards, M. P.

R. Feced, M. P. Poe-Edwards, S. E. Kanellopoulos, N. H. Taylor, and V. A. Handerek, Electron. Lett. 33, 157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salathé, R. P.

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 33, 704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Electron. Lett. 33, 804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, D. Varelas, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Proc. SPIE 2841, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, N. H.

R. Feced, M. P. Poe-Edwards, S. E. Kanellopoulos, N. H. Taylor, and V. A. Handerek, Electron. Lett. 33, 157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Varelas, D.

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 33, 704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Electron. Lett. 33, 804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Limberger, D. Varelas, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Proc. SPIE 2841, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yuce, H. H.

F. P. Kapron and H. H. Yuce, Opt. Eng. 30, 700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Electron. Lett. 33, 804 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Feced, M. P. Poe-Edwards, S. E. Kanellopoulos, N. H. Taylor, and V. A. Handerek, Electron. Lett. 33, 157 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Varelas, H. G. Limberger, and R. P. Salathé, Electron. Lett. 33, 704 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Mitsunaga, Y. Katsuyama, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Ishida, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 4847 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

W. Griffioen, Opt. Eng. 33, 488 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Kapron and H. H. Yuce, Opt. Eng. 30, 700 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. G. Limberger, D. Varelas, R. P. Salathé, and G. Kotrotsios, Proc. SPIE 2841, 84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical transmission spectra for each Bragg grating group that underwent mechanical tests.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamic fatigue Weibull plots of the three cw-written grating groups. The pristine fiber is shown as a reference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated lifetime based on experimental dynamic fatigue parameters of Bragg grating 1 compared with the lifetime of the pristine fiber.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Irradiation, Optical, and Mechanical Parameters of the cw-Written Bragg Gratings

Equations (1)

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tfL, F, σα=σfn+11n+1L0LFn+1/mσα-n,

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