Abstract

Picosecond pulse propagation through a field-enhanced waveguide bulk semiconductor saturable absorber is studied numerically. Fast switching from unsaturated absorption to delayed strong saturation and gain, as well as the predicted dependence of saturation energy on electric field, is based on intraband carrier kinetics and electric-field dynamics in the absorber and can lead to improved, controllable pulse shaping.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. L. Hall, J. Mark, E. P. Ippen, and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1740 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Mark and J. Mork, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2281 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Dines, J. P. Heritage, C. Jasti, and M. Y. Hong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 725 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. V. Uskov, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 552 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Hofmann, K. Frojdh, S. D. Brorson, and J. Mork, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 622 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Hofmann, K. Frojdh, S. D. Brorson, and J. Mork, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dines, J. P. Heritage, C. Jasti, and M. Y. Hong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. V. Uskov, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. Mark and J. Mork, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. L. Hall, J. Mark, E. P. Ippen, and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1740 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Allin, D.

J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Binder, R.

R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowers, J.

J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

A. V. Uskov, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brorson, S. D.

M. Hofmann, K. Frojdh, S. D. Brorson, and J. Mork, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Derickson, D.

J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dines, A.

Eisenstein, G.

K. L. Hall, J. Mark, E. P. Ippen, and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1740 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Frojdh, K.

M. Hofmann, K. Frojdh, S. D. Brorson, and J. Mork, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, K. L.

K. L. Hall, J. Mark, E. P. Ippen, and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1740 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Helkey, R.

J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

Hofmann, M.

M. Hofmann, K. Frojdh, S. D. Brorson, and J. Mork, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, M. Y.

Honninger, R. F. C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Indik, R. A.

R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

K. L. Hall, J. Mark, E. P. Ippen, and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1740 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jasti, C.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Karin, J. R.

A. V. Uskov, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knorr, A.

R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mark, J.

J. Mark and J. Mork, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Hall, J. Mark, E. P. Ippen, and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1740 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mlejnek, M.

R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moloney, J. V.

R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mork, J.

M. Hofmann, K. Frojdh, S. D. Brorson, and J. Mork, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mark and J. Mork, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, R.

A. V. Uskov, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, R.

J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Uskov, A. V.

A. V. Uskov, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. L. Hall, J. Mark, E. P. Ippen, and G. Eisenstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1740 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mark and J. Mork, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2281 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Karin, R. Helkey, D. Derickson, R. Nagarajan, D. Allin, J. Bowers, and R. Thornton, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 676 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. F. C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. V. Uskov, J. R. Karin, R. Nagarajan, and J. E. Bowers, IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 1, 552 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Hofmann, K. Frojdh, S. D. Brorson, and J. Mork, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. A. Indik, R. Binder, M. Mlejnek, J. V. Moloney, S. Hughes, A. Knorr, and S. W. Koch, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3614 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Band diagram of the absorber considered (a waveguide p–i–n heterostructure). Absorption takes place in the region 0<x<W. The initial field E0 comprises the built-in field of the p–i–n structure, the externally applied voltage, or both. The dashed lines show the quasi-Fermi levels for electrons Fc in the conduction band and for holes Fv in the valence band.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temporal dynamics of the gain -α. (b) Input and output photon densities. Curves 0, temperature and field effects are neglected; curves 1, E0=3×107 V/m; curves  2, E0=4.5×107 V/m; curves  3, carrier removal from the absorbing region is neglected.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

St+vgSz=-Γvg1W0Wdxαz, x, tS,
dn¯idt=Svg1W0Wdxαz, x, t+Rni,
du¯idt=Svg1W0Wdxαz, x, ti0+qφx-u¯i-u¯Liτui+Rui,
n¯i=1W0Wdxnix, nix=2mikBTi2π23/2F1/2Fi-qφxkBTi,
u¯ix=1W0Wdx3kBTimikBTi2π23/2×F3/2Fi-qφxkBTi+qφxnix.
φx=E0x+φ˜x,
2φ˜x2=q0ncx-nvx.
α=αz, x, t=α01-fc0-fv0/1+supS.
fi0=1+expi0+qφx-FikBTi-1.

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