Abstract

A tunable mid-IR source obtained by difference-frequency generation is demonstrated in a selectively oxidized GaAs–AlAs multilayer waveguide. We designed the waveguide to present the required form birefringence for phase matching of the nonlinear interaction. We took special care to lower losses for the mid-IR radiation. IR tunability from 5.2 to 5.6  µm was achieved by variation of the waveguide temperature and one pump wavelength. IR output power as great as 0.12 µW was obtained with the product of two pump powers of 7 mW2. Losses of 50 cm-1 were measured for the mid-IR radiation. These losses are attributed to surface scattering.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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1997 (2)

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Thelmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaky, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, and B. L. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

A. R. Sugg, N. Holonyak, J. E. Baker, F. A. Kish, and J. M. Dallesasse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

G. Walker, Electron. Lett. 21, 581 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Antoniades, N.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J. E.

A. R. Sugg, N. Holonyak, J. E. Baker, F. A. Kish, and J. M. Dallesasse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Thelmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, R.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. T.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, and B. L. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bravetti, P.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Caneau, C.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crouzy, S.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dallesasse, J. M.

A. R. Sugg, N. Holonyak, J. E. Baker, F. A. Kish, and J. M. Dallesasse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Thelmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, H.

Holonyak, N.

A. R. Sugg, N. Holonyak, J. E. Baker, F. A. Kish, and J. M. Dallesasse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, H. E.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, and B. L. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawahara, M.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaky, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kish, F. A.

A. R. Sugg, N. Holonyak, J. E. Baker, F. A. Kish, and J. M. Dallesasse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, M.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, and B. L. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, N.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Thelmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Thelmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Okayama, H.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaky, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rajhel, A.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Thelmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shinozaky, K.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaky, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

Stegeman, G. I.

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sugg, A. R.

A. R. Sugg, N. Holonyak, J. E. Baker, F. A. Kish, and J. M. Dallesasse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thelmann, S.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Thelmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vodjdani, N.

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Thelmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G.

G. Walker, Electron. Lett. 21, 581 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaky, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, B. L.

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, and B. L. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. Q.

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaky, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

C. Q. Xu, H. Okayama, K. Shinozaky, K. Watanabe, and M. Kawahara, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1170 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. J. B. Yoo, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, A. Rajhel, and N. Antoniades, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2609 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, N. Laurent, S. Thelmann, N. Vodjdani, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1320 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, S. Crouzy, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2587 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Fiore, V. Berger, E. Rosencher, P. Bravetti, N. Laurent, and J. Nagle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3622 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Sugg, N. Holonyak, J. E. Baker, F. A. Kish, and J. M. Dallesasse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1199 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Walker, Electron. Lett. 21, 581 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Kumar, J. T. Boyd, H. E. Jackson, and B. L. Weiss, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1678 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, G. I. Stegeman, M. Sheik-Bahae, and E. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 673 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electric fields of the interacting modes in the waveguide. The structure of the waveguide is also shown. Four thin layers of Alox are present in the central core.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mid-IR emission power. We obtained the spectrum by varying the frequency of one of the pumps. In the inset is shown the variation of IR emission wavelength with waveguide temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of emitted power with the product of the pump powers for different waveguide lengths: 0.5  mm (×), 1  mm (), 1.8  mm (), 2.3  mm (), and 3.3  mm (). The relation is linear as expected. The inset shows the efficiency for each sample. The line indicates the average value.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FTIR measurement of transmission in a 4-mm-long, 100-µm-wide waveguide for TE and TM polarization. Alox cut-off and O–H absorption are shown.

Equations (2)

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η=PIRPTi:sPYAG.
ηL=ηˆ0αmir/221-exp-αmir/2L2,

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