Abstract

A new method is proposed and demonstrated for measuring the phase noise (pulse timing fluctuations) of mode-locked lasers. The instantaneous phases of the pulse intensity are extracted in a time domain, and the phase-noise power spectral density is calculated from the demodulated signals. Compared with the conventional method based on the single-sideband phase-noise measurement, the proposed method has a larger dynamic range and a wider frequency span. The phase noise of a mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser is measured for 50-mHz–1-MHz Fourier frequencies.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Hendeson and A. G. Roddie, Opt. Commun. 100, 456 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, T. Day, F. Doft, M. M. Malley, and G. W. Sutton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. Son, J. V. Rudd, and J. F. Whitaker, Opt. Lett. 17, 733 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Walker, D. W. Crust, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

1990

F. Finch, X. Zhu, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, C. E. Soccolich, G. Sucha, M. N. Islam, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 15, 974 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Aoyama, M.

M. Aoyama and K. Yamakawa, Opt. Commun. 140, 255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brovelli, L. R.

Chen, L. P.

Crust, D. W.

D. R. Walker, D. W. Crust, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Darack, S. B.

Day, T.

T. B. Simpson, T. Day, F. Doft, M. M. Malley, and G. W. Sutton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doft, F.

T. B. Simpson, T. Day, F. Doft, M. M. Malley, and G. W. Sutton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

Dykaar, D. R.

Eliyahu, D.

Evans, J. M.

Finch, F.

F. Finch, X. Zhu, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Halford, D.

J. H. Shoaf, D. Halford, and A. S. Risley, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

Harvey, G. T.

S. B. Darack, D. R. Dykaar, and G. T. Harvey, Opt. Lett. 16, 1677 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Harvey, M. S. Heutmaker, P. R. Smith, M. C. Nuss, U. Keller, and J. A. Valdmanis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

S. Namiki, C. X. Yu, and H. A. Haus, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2817 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hendeson, D.

D. Hendeson and A. G. Roddie, Opt. Commun. 100, 456 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heutmaker, M. S.

G. T. Harvey, M. S. Heutmaker, P. R. Smith, M. C. Nuss, U. Keller, and J. A. Valdmanis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

Kamp, M.

Kartaschoff, P.

P. Kartaschoff, Frequency and Time (Academic, London, 1978), Chap. 2, pp. 13–36.

Kean, P. N.

F. Finch, X. Zhu, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Kopf, D.

Lamb, K.

Liu, J. M.

Malley, M. M.

T. B. Simpson, T. Day, F. Doft, M. M. Malley, and G. W. Sutton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

Nuss, M. C.

G. T. Harvey, M. S. Heutmaker, P. R. Smith, M. C. Nuss, U. Keller, and J. A. Valdmanis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Risley, A. S.

J. H. Shoaf, D. Halford, and A. S. Risley, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

Roddie, A. G.

D. Hendeson and A. G. Roddie, Opt. Commun. 100, 456 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rodwell, M. J. W.

M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rudd, J. V.

Salvatore, R. A.

Shoaf, J. H.

J. H. Shoaf, D. Halford, and A. S. Risley, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

Sibbett, W.

D. E. Spence, J. M. Dudley, K. Lamb, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Lett. 19, 481 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Walker, D. W. Crust, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Spence, J. M. Evans, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, Opt. Lett. 16, 1762 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Finch, X. Zhu, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, T. B.

T. B. Simpson, T. Day, F. Doft, M. M. Malley, and G. W. Sutton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sleat, W. E.

Smith, P. R.

G. T. Harvey, M. S. Heutmaker, P. R. Smith, M. C. Nuss, U. Keller, and J. A. Valdmanis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Soccolich, C. E.

Son, J.

Spence, D. E.

Sucha, G.

Sutton, G. W.

T. B. Simpson, T. Day, F. Doft, M. M. Malley, and G. W. Sutton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Valdmanis, J. A.

G. T. Harvey, M. S. Heutmaker, P. R. Smith, M. C. Nuss, U. Keller, and J. A. Valdmanis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Walker, D. R.

D. R. Walker, D. W. Crust, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wegener, M.

Weingarten, K. J.

D. Kopf, K. J. Weingarten, L. R. Brovelli, M. Kamp, and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 19, 2143 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

Yamakawa, K.

M. Aoyama and K. Yamakawa, Opt. Commun. 140, 255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

Yu, C. X.

Zhu, X.

F. Finch, X. Zhu, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B 39, 201 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Walker, D. W. Crust, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Simpson, T. Day, F. Doft, M. M. Malley, and G. W. Sutton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2489 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Finch, X. Zhu, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1115 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Harvey, M. S. Heutmaker, P. R. Smith, M. C. Nuss, U. Keller, and J. A. Valdmanis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

M. Aoyama and K. Yamakawa, Opt. Commun. 140, 255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Hendeson and A. G. Roddie, Opt. Commun. 100, 456 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. H. Shoaf, D. Halford, and A. S. Risley, (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1973).

P. Kartaschoff, Frequency and Time (Academic, London, 1978), Chap. 2, pp. 13–36.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) PSD of the pulse intensity from the mode-locked Cr:LiSAF laser measured with the rf spectrum analyzer. (b) PSD of the fifth harmonic. The estimated carrier-to-noise ratio (C/N) at 0.5-kHz frequency offset is shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-noise PSD for 10-mHz–1-MHz Fourier frequency. A, result obtained from the SSB PSD of the fourth harmonic; B, results obtained by demodulating the second harmonic. Inset, phase-noise PSD for 0–1-kHz Fourier frequency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Change in the pulse repetition frequency during a period of 12  s obtained from the demodulated phase signal by use of Eq.  (8).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Vt=V01+ϵtsin2πfrt+ϕt,
ϕ21/21 rad,
LfSϕf/2.
Vnt=Vn01+ϵtsinn2πfrt+ϕt.
Vt=V01+ϵtcos ϕtsin2πfrt+V01+ϵtsin ϕtcos2πfrt,
Vre=V01+ϵtcos ϕt, Vim=V01+ϵtsin ϕt.
ϕt=tan-1Vim/Vre.
Δfrt=12πdϕtdt.

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