Abstract

We have observed extraordinarily large optical nonlinearity in Methyl Red–doped nematic liquid-crystal film. Grating diffraction can be generated with an optical intensity as low as 40 µW/cm2, and a refractive-index change coefficient of more than 6 cm2/W is obtained. The effect is attributed to formation of an optically induced dc space-charge field and to the resulting reorientation of the highly birefringent nematic director axis.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  11. L. K. Vistin, P.-A. V. Kazlauskas, and S. Paeda, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 29, 207 (1984).

1995 (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1992 (2)

1991 (2)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, R. G. Lindquist, R. R. Michael, R. J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991); see also I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals:?Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

L. K. Vistin, P.-A. V. Kazlauskas, and S. Paeda, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 29, 207 (1984).

1981 (1)

S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 1989 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D. J.

Chen, A. G.

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Helfrich, W.

W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Janossy, I.

Kazlauskas, P.-A. V.

L. K. Vistin, P.-A. V. Kazlauskas, and S. Paeda, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 29, 207 (1984).

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994); I. C. Khoo, Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, R. G. Lindquist, R. R. Michael, R. J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991); see also I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals:?Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Kosa, T.

Li, H.

Liang, Y.

Lindquist, R. G.

I. C. Khoo, R. G. Lindquist, R. R. Michael, R. J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991); see also I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals:?Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

LoPresti, P.

I. C. Khoo, R. G. Lindquist, R. R. Michael, R. J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991); see also I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals:?Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Mansfield, R. J.

I. C. Khoo, R. G. Lindquist, R. R. Michael, R. J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991); see also I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals:?Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Michael, R. R.

I. C. Khoo, R. G. Lindquist, R. R. Michael, R. J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991); see also I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals:?Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

Paeda, S.

L. K. Vistin, P.-A. V. Kazlauskas, and S. Paeda, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 29, 207 (1984).

Rudenko, E. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994).

Sato, S.

S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 1989 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994).

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vistin, L. K.

L. K. Vistin, P.-A. V. Kazlauskas, and S. Paeda, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 29, 207 (1984).

Wasielewski, M. R.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, B. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. C. Khoo, R. G. Lindquist, R. R. Michael, R. J. Mansfield, and P. LoPresti, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3853 (1991); see also I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals:?Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969).
[CrossRef]

JETP (1)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, JETP 78, 875 (1994).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Sato, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 1989 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

L. K. Vistin, P.-A. V. Kazlauskas, and S. Paeda, Sov. Phys. Dokl. 29, 207 (1984).

Other (1)

F. P. Schafer, ed., Dye Lasers (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1974).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of probe diffraction efficiency on total writing-beam intensity. Sample thickness, 6 µm; α=0.04 rad; probe beam angle β=0.1 rad. Inset, schematic of the optical wave mixing geometry.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of probe diffraction efficiency on grating spacing for the 6µmthick sample. Writing beam intensity, 3.5 mW/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed photovoltage dependence on the optical illumination intensity in a 25µmthick nematic film. Inset, typical oscilloscope trace of the detected photovoltage in a 6µmthick film under an optical intensity of 1 mW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffraction efficiency versus applied dc voltage in a 25µmthick film; writing beam intensity, 1.5 mW/cm2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Observed grating writing times as a function of the total writing beam intensity in a 6µmthick nematic film. The buildup time for the photovoltage behaves analogously.

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