Abstract

We present a new microscopy system for imaging in turbid media that is based on the spatial coherence gate principle and generates in parallel a complete two-dimensional head-on image without scanning. This system has been implemented in a commercial microscope and preserves the lateral resolution of the optics used. With a spatially incoherent source, speckle-free images with diffraction-limited resolution are recorded at successive depths with shot-noise-limited detection. The setup comprises a photoelastic modulator for path difference modulation and a two-dimensional CCD array and uses a multiplexed lock-in detection scheme.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Boppart, M. A. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, Devel. Biol. 177, 54 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. B. Su, Opt. Lett. 22, 665 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Ballif, R. Gianotti, P. Chavanne, R. Wälti, and R. P. Salathé, Opt. Lett. 22, 757 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. C. Boccara, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, and P. Gleyzes, “Détection analogique multicanal,” French patentFR90.092255 (June29, 1990), and international extensions.
  10. P. Gleyzes, F. Guernet, and A. C. Boccara, J. Opt. (Paris) 26, 251 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and H. Saint-Jalmes, Opt. Lett. 22, 1529 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. Canit and J. Badoz, Appl. Opt. 22, 592 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Blanchot, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, E. Beaurepaire, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, to be presented at SPIE BiOS '98, January 24–30, San Jose, Calif.

1997 (4)

1996 (2)

S. A. Boppart, M. A. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, Devel. Biol. 177, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

P. Gleyzes, F. Guernet, and A. C. Boccara, J. Opt. (Paris) 26, 251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

Badoz, J.

Ballif, J.

Beaurepaire, E.

L. Blanchot, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, E. Beaurepaire, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, to be presented at SPIE BiOS '98, January 24–30, San Jose, Calif.

Blanchot, L.

L. Blanchot, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, E. Beaurepaire, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, to be presented at SPIE BiOS '98, January 24–30, San Jose, Calif.

Boccara, A. C.

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and H. Saint-Jalmes, Opt. Lett. 22, 1529 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Gleyzes, F. Guernet, and A. C. Boccara, J. Opt. (Paris) 26, 251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Blanchot, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, E. Beaurepaire, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, to be presented at SPIE BiOS '98, January 24–30, San Jose, Calif.

A. C. Boccara, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, and P. Gleyzes, “Détection analogique multicanal,” French patentFR90.092255 (June29, 1990), and international extensions.

Boppart, S. A.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. A. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, Devel. Biol. 177, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. A. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, Devel. Biol. 177, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. A.

S. A. Boppart, M. A. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, Devel. Biol. 177, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canit, J. C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charbonnier, F.

A. C. Boccara, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, and P. Gleyzes, “Détection analogique multicanal,” French patentFR90.092255 (June29, 1990), and international extensions.

Chavanne, P.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fournier, D.

A. C. Boccara, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, and P. Gleyzes, “Détection analogique multicanal,” French patentFR90.092255 (June29, 1990), and international extensions.

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. A. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, Devel. Biol. 177, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, G. M. Owen, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 19, 590 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gianotti, R.

Gleyzes, P.

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and H. Saint-Jalmes, Opt. Lett. 22, 1529 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Gleyzes, F. Guernet, and A. C. Boccara, J. Opt. (Paris) 26, 251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Boccara, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, and P. Gleyzes, “Détection analogique multicanal,” French patentFR90.092255 (June29, 1990), and international extensions.

L. Blanchot, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, E. Beaurepaire, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, to be presented at SPIE BiOS '98, January 24–30, San Jose, Calif.

Golubovic, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guernet, F.

P. Gleyzes, F. Guernet, and A. C. Boccara, J. Opt. (Paris) 26, 251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

Huang, D.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Lebec, M.

L. Blanchot, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, E. Beaurepaire, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, to be presented at SPIE BiOS '98, January 24–30, San Jose, Calif.

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Owen, G. M.

Pitris, C.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saint-Jalmes, H.

P. Gleyzes, A. C. Boccara, and H. Saint-Jalmes, Opt. Lett. 22, 1529 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Blanchot, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, E. Beaurepaire, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, to be presented at SPIE BiOS '98, January 24–30, San Jose, Calif.

Salathé, R. P.

Schuman, J. S.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 18, 1864 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, C. B.

Swanson, E. A.

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, M. A. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, Devel. Biol. 177, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wälti, R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Devel. Biol. (1)

S. A. Boppart, M. A. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, Devel. Biol. 177, 54 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (Paris) (1)

P. Gleyzes, F. Guernet, and A. C. Boccara, J. Opt. (Paris) 26, 251 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, C. Pitris, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 276, 2037 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. C. Boccara, F. Charbonnier, D. Fournier, and P. Gleyzes, “Détection analogique multicanal,” French patentFR90.092255 (June29, 1990), and international extensions.

L. Blanchot, M. Lebec, H. Saint-Jalmes, E. Beaurepaire, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, to be presented at SPIE BiOS '98, January 24–30, San Jose, Calif.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Overview of the system and image of one point through the optical part. In reality, a full two-dimensional image is generated in parallel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images obtained in full-field optical coherence microscopy: (a) Unprocessed single-quadrature image of the surface of an onion layer. Interference fringes reflect the topography of the surface. (b) Onion layer 20 µm below the surface. Cell walls are visible, but water-filled vacuoles inside the cells produce essentially no signal. (c) Onion layer 150 µm below the surface. A different tissue organization is revealed. Measurement of the noise level in the empty regions indicates a sensitivity of the order of 100  dB (single-quadrature measurement scheme; see text). (d) Orchid stem cut parallel to the conducting system, 350 µm below the cut plane. Vessel orientation is visible. (e) Arum spadix cut perpendicular to the axis, 200 µm below the cut plane. Cells are visible. Because of the presence of thick walls, some regions in the image have a random aspect because the signal collected over a given pixel is not dominated by a strong contribution from a water–cell-wall interface.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ηN±ηαN0+RcN0+1/2RiN0±2RcαN021/2.
S=S+-S-4ηN0αRc, S0=ηα+1/2RiN0.
SNR4,N=S/4NS01/22NSsatRc/α1/2.
SNR2,N=2SNR4,N.

Metrics