Abstract

An improved polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT) system is developed and used to measure birefringence in porcine myocardium tissue and produce two-dimensional birefringence mapping of the tissue. Signal-to-noise issues that cause systematic measurement errors are analyzed to determine the regime in which such measurements are accurate. The advantage of polarization-sensitive OCT systems over standard OCT systems in avoiding image artifacts caused by birefringence is also demonstrated.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1997

1996

1992

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. V. Sorin and G. F. Gray, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi, H. Hanafusa, K. Takada, and J. Noda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 9, 623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

Bouma, B. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golubovic, B.

Gray, G. F.

W. V. Sorin and G. F. Gray, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanafusa, H.

M. Kobayashi, H. Hanafusa, K. Takada, and J. Noda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 9, 623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi, H. Hanafusa, K. Takada, and J. Noda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 9, 623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Nelson, J. S.

Noda, J.

M. Kobayashi, H. Hanafusa, K. Takada, and J. Noda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 9, 623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin and G. F. Gray, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, S. A. Boppart, B. Golubovic, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 21, 1408 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

M. Kobayashi, H. Hanafusa, K. Takada, and J. Noda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 9, 623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol

M. Kobayashi, H. Hanafusa, K. Takada, and J. Noda, IEEE J. Lightwave Technol 9, 623 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. V. Sorin and G. F. Gray, IEEE J. Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 105 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. F. Fercher, J. Biomed. Opt. 1, 157 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Shuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of birefringence-sensitive OCT system: SLD, superluminescent diode; PBS1, PBS2, polarizing beam-splitter cubes; BS, beam splitter; QW1, QW2, zero-order quarter-wave plates; TSM, transverse scanning mirror; L's, lenses; SMF's, single-mode fibers; DET 1, DET 2, photodetectors.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ability of polarization OCT to measure phase retardation for determination of tissue birefringence. (a) Contour plot of phase-measurement error δerr versus actual phase retardation δ and signal-to-noise ratio Nr. (b) Experimentally measured signals versus penetration depth in porcine myocardium tissue: (1) signal-to-noise ratio Nr; (2) phase-retardation δmeas; (3) linear fit r=0.969 of δmeas from 0 to 200 µm depth, resulting in a slope of 305°/mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

2D images of a sample of porcine myocardium generated by polarization OCT. The black bar at the bottom left of each image corresponds to 500 µm. (a) Image of phase retardation δmeas caused by birefringence, (b) birefringence-independent image of tissue backscattering Nr, (c) birefringence-dependent image of tissue backscattering generated by a single detector AV.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

AH, V=2 ReEr*lrEslsH, V,
AH=Rscsinδcos4πΔl/λ0+2θ,
AV=Rsccosδcos4πΔl/λ0.
AHT=Rsc[sin2δ+Nr-1]1/2,
AVT=Rsc[cos2δ+Nr-1]1/2,
δmeas=arctansin2δ+Nr-11/2/cos2δ+Nr-11/2.

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