Abstract

We demonstrate the use of a near-infrared-sensitive photorefractive polymer with high efficiency for imaging through scattering media, using an all-optical holographic time gate. Imaging through nine scattering mean free paths is performed at 800 nm with a mode-locked continuous-wave Ti:sapphire laser.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Z.-H. Cho, J. P. Jones, and M. Singh, Foundations of Medical Imaging (Wiley, New York, 1993).
  2. W. R. Hedrick, D. L. Hykes, and D. E. Starchman, Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation (Mosby, St.??Louis, Mo., 1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

1996

S. K. Gayen and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Photon. News 7(3), 16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

1990

See, for example, J. Singer, F. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1971

Abramson, N. H.

Alfano, R. R.

Barry, N. P.

Chen, C.

Chen, H.

Cho, Z.-H.

Z.-H. Cho, J. P. Jones, and M. Singh, Foundations of Medical Imaging (Wiley, New York, 1993).

Dai, H.

Dainty, J. C.

Dilworth, D.

Duguay, M. A.

Enami, Y.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Erskine, L.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

French, P. M. W.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gayen, S. K.

S. K. Gayen and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Photon. News 7(3), 16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grunbaum, F.

See, for example, J. Singer, F. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillemet, G.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Hedrick, W. R.

W. R. Hedrick, D. L. Hykes, and D. E. Starchman, Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation (Mosby, St.??Louis, Mo., 1995).

Hee, M. R.

Hendrickx, E.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Ho, P. P.

Hyde, S. C. W.

Hykes, D. L.

W. R. Hedrick, D. L. Hykes, and D. E. Starchman, Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation (Mosby, St.??Louis, Mo., 1995).

Izatt, J. A.

Jacobson, J. M.

Jones, J. P.

Z.-H. Cho, J. P. Jones, and M. Singh, Foundations of Medical Imaging (Wiley, New York, 1993).

Jones, R.

Kippelen, B.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Klein, M. B.

Kohn, P.

See, for example, J. Singer, F. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leith, E.

Liang, X.

Lopez, J.

Maldonado, J. L.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Marder, S. R.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Mattick, A. T.

Meerholz, K.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Röckel, H.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Rudd, J.

Sandalphon,

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Singer, J.

See, for example, J. Singer, F. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, M.

Z.-H. Cho, J. P. Jones, and M. Singh, Foundations of Medical Imaging (Wiley, New York, 1993).

Spears, K. G.

Starchman, D. E.

W. R. Hedrick, D. L. Hykes, and D. E. Starchman, Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation (Mosby, St.??Louis, Mo., 1995).

Steele, D. D.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Sun, P.-C.

Swanson, E. A.

Valdmanis, J.

Volodin, B. L.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Vossler, G.

Wang, J. F.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Wang, L.

Wechsler, B. A.

Yao, Y. J.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

Zubelli, J.

See, for example, J. Singer, F. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature (London)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Photon. News

S. K. Gayen and R. R. Alfano, Opt. Photon. News 7(3), 16 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science

See, for example, J. Singer, F. Grunbaum, P. Kohn, and J. Zubelli, Science 248, 990 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

See, for example, J. B. Pawley, ed., Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy (Plenum, New York, 1990).

Z.-H. Cho, J. P. Jones, and M. Singh, Foundations of Medical Imaging (Wiley, New York, 1993).

W. R. Hedrick, D. L. Hykes, and D. E. Starchman, Ultrasound Physics and Instrumentation (Mosby, St.??Louis, Mo., 1995).

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, “Infrared photorefractive polymers and their applications for imaging,” Science (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The oval area described by the long-dashed curve is actually out of the plane of the setup. The power ratio between the probe and the writing beams was controlled by half-wave plate λ/2 and polarizing beam splitter PBS1. A second polarizing beam splitter, PBS2, directed the diffracted beam to the CCD camera (Sony Model XC-73).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross correlations of an unstretched pulse (dotted curve) and a pulse stretched during propagation through a weakly scattering medium <3 MFP's. The inset shows the scattering coefficient as a function of volume fractions of 0.548 (filled triangles), 1.072 (squares), and 2.836-µm (circles) polystyrene spheres suspended in water.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-gated image of the resolution target after the light has passed through 1 cm of a 0.06% water suspension of 0.548-µm polystyrene spheres.

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