Abstract

We analyze wavefront sensor (WFS) measurements taken with the 1.5-m telescope at the Starfire Optical Range in Albuquerque, N.M., of wind speeds in the turbulent atmospheric layers that cause seeing. The frozen-flow hypothesis suggests that atmospheric turbulence is located in thin horizontal layers and that turbulent features do not change over short time scales but are drawn along by the prevailing wind. Exploiting autocorrelation properties of the WFS data that result from these characteristics of atmospheric turbulence, we are able to measure the movements of individual layers. We also test the validity of the frozen-flow hypothesis.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Dayton, B. Pierson, B. Spielbusch, and J. Gonglewski, Opt. Lett. 15, 1737 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. W. Nicholls, G. D. Boreman, and J. C. Dainty, Opt. Lett. 20, 2460 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. E. Silbaugh, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 2453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. A. Montera, “Linear and nonlinear preprocessing of wavefront sensor slope measurements for improved adaptive optics performance,” Ph.D.??dissertation (U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology, Dayton, Ohio, 1996).
  5. J. Vernin and F. Roddier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. M. Welsh and S. C. Koeffler, Appl. Opt. 33, 4880 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. J. Gardner, M. C. Roggemann, and B. M. Welsh, Proc. SPIE 2828, 256 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Q. Fugate, Proc. SPIE 2201, 10 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. L. Pennington, D. Swindle, M. Oliker, B. L. Ellerbroek, and J. M. Spinhirne, Proc. SPIE 2534, 327 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. TWINKLESOFT, “Using Skylight—atmospheric imaging simulation for optical engineering and image science, Version 1.2,” commercial program available from Focus Software, Inc., P.O.??Box 18228, Tucson, Ariz. 85731.

1996 (2)

E. E. Silbaugh, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 2453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Gardner, M. C. Roggemann, and B. M. Welsh, Proc. SPIE 2828, 256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

T. L. Pennington, D. Swindle, M. Oliker, B. L. Ellerbroek, and J. M. Spinhirne, Proc. SPIE 2534, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Nicholls, G. D. Boreman, and J. C. Dainty, Opt. Lett. 20, 2460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1992 (1)

D. Dayton, B. Pierson, B. Spielbusch, and J. Gonglewski, Opt. Lett. 15, 1737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Boreman, G. D.

Dainty, J. C.

Dayton, D.

D. Dayton, B. Pierson, B. Spielbusch, and J. Gonglewski, Opt. Lett. 15, 1737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ellerbroek, B. L.

T. L. Pennington, D. Swindle, M. Oliker, B. L. Ellerbroek, and J. M. Spinhirne, Proc. SPIE 2534, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fugate, R. Q.

R. Q. Fugate, Proc. SPIE 2201, 10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, P. J.

P. J. Gardner, M. C. Roggemann, and B. M. Welsh, Proc. SPIE 2828, 256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gonglewski, J.

D. Dayton, B. Pierson, B. Spielbusch, and J. Gonglewski, Opt. Lett. 15, 1737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Koeffler, S. C.

Montera, D. A.

D. A. Montera, “Linear and nonlinear preprocessing of wavefront sensor slope measurements for improved adaptive optics performance,” Ph.D.??dissertation (U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology, Dayton, Ohio, 1996).

Nicholls, T. W.

Oliker, M.

T. L. Pennington, D. Swindle, M. Oliker, B. L. Ellerbroek, and J. M. Spinhirne, Proc. SPIE 2534, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pennington, T. L.

T. L. Pennington, D. Swindle, M. Oliker, B. L. Ellerbroek, and J. M. Spinhirne, Proc. SPIE 2534, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pierson, B.

D. Dayton, B. Pierson, B. Spielbusch, and J. Gonglewski, Opt. Lett. 15, 1737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, F.

Roggemann, M. C.

E. E. Silbaugh, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 2453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Gardner, M. C. Roggemann, and B. M. Welsh, Proc. SPIE 2828, 256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Silbaugh, E. E.

E. E. Silbaugh, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 2453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spielbusch, B.

D. Dayton, B. Pierson, B. Spielbusch, and J. Gonglewski, Opt. Lett. 15, 1737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. M.

T. L. Pennington, D. Swindle, M. Oliker, B. L. Ellerbroek, and J. M. Spinhirne, Proc. SPIE 2534, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swindle, D.

T. L. Pennington, D. Swindle, M. Oliker, B. L. Ellerbroek, and J. M. Spinhirne, Proc. SPIE 2534, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vernin, J.

Welsh, B. M.

E. E. Silbaugh, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 2453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Gardner, M. C. Roggemann, and B. M. Welsh, Proc. SPIE 2828, 256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Welsh and S. C. Koeffler, Appl. Opt. 33, 4880 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Vernin and F. Roddier, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 270 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Silbaugh, B. M. Welsh, and M. C. Roggemann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 13, 2453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

D. Dayton, B. Pierson, B. Spielbusch, and J. Gonglewski, Opt. Lett. 15, 1737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Nicholls, G. D. Boreman, and J. C. Dainty, Opt. Lett. 20, 2460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (3)

P. J. Gardner, M. C. Roggemann, and B. M. Welsh, Proc. SPIE 2828, 256 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Fugate, Proc. SPIE 2201, 10 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Pennington, D. Swindle, M. Oliker, B. L. Ellerbroek, and J. M. Spinhirne, Proc. SPIE 2534, 327 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

TWINKLESOFT, “Using Skylight—atmospheric imaging simulation for optical engineering and image science, Version 1.2,” commercial program available from Focus Software, Inc., P.O.??Box 18228, Tucson, Ariz. 85731.

D. A. Montera, “Linear and nonlinear preprocessing of wavefront sensor slope measurements for improved adaptive optics performance,” Ph.D.??dissertation (U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology, Dayton, Ohio, 1996).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plots of AΔx, Δy, τ=constant calculated from a 512-frame data set for various time lags τ: a, τ=0; b, τ=12 ms; c, τ=24 ms; d, τ=36 ms; e, τ=48 ms; f, τ=60 ms. Values of Δx (to the right) and Δy (up) range from -1.5 to 1.5 m.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of Lvx, vy [see Eq.  (3)] as a function of vx (to the right) and vy (up), which range from -30 to 30 m/s.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

AΔx, Δy, τ=fx, y, tfx+Δx, y+Δy, t+τdxdydtfx, y, tfx, y, tdxdydt
fx, y, t=i=1nfix, t, y,
Lvx, vy=1T2-T1T1T2Avxτ, vyτ, τdτ.

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