Abstract

A novel, sensitive, simple, and robust strain interrogation technique is analyzed and experimentally tested. By locking a laser wavelength to the midreflection wavelength of a standard fiber Bragg grating and measuring the error signal, we achieve high dynamic strain sensitivity of 45 picostrain/Hz rms at 3 kHz, where the dominant noise in the experiment is the laser frequency noise.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 28, 236 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. LeBlanc, A. D. Kersey, and T. Tsai, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 28–30.
  5. D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Knudsen, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 90 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, and T. Tsai, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-11) (IEEE-LEOS, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 634–637.
  8. K. Sudgen, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. For example, Innovative Fibers, 45 De Villebois, Suite 200, Gatineau, Quebec J8T 8J7, Canada.
  10. K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, Electron. Lett. 25, 774 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Mahal, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Opt. Lett. 21, 1217 (1996); A. Bruner, A. Arie, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, Appl. Opt. 37, 1049 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

S. Knudsen, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

K. Sudgen, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 28, 236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, Electron. Lett. 25, 774 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

Arie, A.

Askins, C. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

K. Sudgen, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berkoff, T. A.

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 28, 236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Copner, N.

K. Sudgen, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dandridge, A.

S. Knudsen, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, Electron. Lett. 25, 774 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Davis, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, and T. Tsai, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-11) (IEEE-LEOS, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 634–637.

Elliot, D. S.

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Friebele, E. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 28, 236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, Electron. Lett. 25, 774 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, and T. Tsai, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-11) (IEEE-LEOS, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 634–637.

M. LeBlanc, A. D. Kersey, and T. Tsai, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 28–30.

Knudsen, S.

S. Knudsen, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Koo, K. P.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

LeBlanc, M.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. LeBlanc, A. D. Kersey, and T. Tsai, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 28–30.

Mahal, V.

Molony, A.

K. Sudgen, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morey, W. W.

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 28, 236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Putnam, M. A.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roy, R.

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. J.

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sudgen, K.

K. Sudgen, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T.

M. LeBlanc, A. D. Kersey, and T. Tsai, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 28–30.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, and T. Tsai, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-11) (IEEE-LEOS, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 634–637.

Tveten, A. B.

S. Knudsen, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, Electron. Lett. 25, 774 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weller, J. F.

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, Electron. Lett. 25, 774 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. J.

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, Electron. Lett. 25, 774 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yurek, A.

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, Electron. Lett. 25, 774 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Electron. Lett. 28, 236 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Sudgen, I. Bennion, A. Molony, and N. Copner, Electron. Lett. 30, 440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Williams, A. Dandridge, A. D. Kersey, J. F. Weller, A. Yurek, and A. B. Tveten, Electron. Lett. 25, 774 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Knudsen, A. B. Tveten, and A. Dandridge, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

K. P. Koo and A. D. Kersey, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1243 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. J. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. S. Elliot, R. Roy, and S. J. Smith, Phys. Rev. A 26, 12 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

M. LeBlanc, A. D. Kersey, and T. Tsai, in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 28–30.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, and T. Tsai, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (OFS-11) (IEEE-LEOS, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), pp. 634–637.

For example, Innovative Fibers, 45 De Villebois, Suite 200, Gatineau, Quebec J8T 8J7, Canada.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dynamic strain measurement setup. Inset, effect of applied strain on the FBG reflectivity curve. See text for definitions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured strain resolution spectrum obtained with New Focus (NF) and Hewlett-Packard (HP) laser sources. Inset, error signal for a 1.5-microstrain (rms) strain signal at 1 kHz.

Equations (4)

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Rfν=R0+ν-ν0G,
ir=Rfν-Δνs-R0RDP0=-GΔνs=0.79νGRDP0ε,
εminfreq=Sf/0.79ν
Δνmax,critical=2R0RDP0Sf/e1/2.

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